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NC0000272_Color Perception Study Appendices_20130101 EXHIBIT D a 49 Paul Dickens From: Belnick, Tom <tom.belnick@ncdenr.gov> Sent: Friday, June 01, 2012 2:40 PM To: Paul Dickens Cc: Poupart, Jeff; Reid, Dianne; Chernikov, Sergei; Cranford, Chuck; Fritz Wagener Subject: BRPP/Color Perception Study Plan Blue Ridge Paper NPDES Permit NC0000272 Color Perception Study Plan Paul- by this email, DWQ is approving the proposed 2012 color perception study in the North Carolina portion of the Pigeon River. In their review of the study plan/revisions, EPA raised comments about ultimate data interpretation. DWQ concurs that the primary goal of this study is to establish an aesthetically acceptable color level in the Pigeon River based on unbiased observers. Given this goal, it is hopeful that a broad range of instream color levels are encountered over the study duration. After an acceptable color level is determined,the NPDES permit will be revisited to ensure consistency with study results. Since the color perception study will focus on a site-specific evaluation of our narrative color standard, Dianne Reid with our Water Quality Standards Unit will take the DWQ lead through the study process. Tom Belnick Supervisor, Complex NPDES Permitting Unit NC DENR/Division of Water Quality 1617 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, NC 27699-1617 (919)807-6390;fax (919) 807-6495 E-mail correspondence to and from this address is subject to the North Carolina Public Records Law and may be disclosed to third parties unless the content is exempt by statute or other regulation. i evergreen I& Canton Office packaging c / In 175 Moiti Street• Canton, NC: 28716 17 April 2012 PSD 30-12 Tom Belnick CERTIFIED MAIL Supervisor, Complex NPDES Permitting Unit RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED Division of Water Quality 7008 3230 0002 2591 1663 North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources 1617 Mail Service Center Raleigh,North Carolina 27699-1617 ai r Subject: Response to EPA Comments dated 28 March 2012 March 2012 Revised Color Perception Study NPDES Permit NC0000272 Blue Ridge Paper Products Inc. Canton Mill Dear Mr. Belnick— Attached is our response to EPA comments received by the DWQ on 28 March 2012 and forwarded to Blue Ridge Paper Products Inc. for evaluation. The EPA comments concern the revised Color Perception Study Plan submitted on 16 March 2012. Evergreen has consulted with Drs. Prestrude and Cherry about the comments. The response to comments is an addendum to the study plan and is the result of a collaborative effort between the company and Drs. Prestrude and Cherry. We understand EPA's interest in clarifying how the perception study data will be analyzed and used. Evergreen shares this interest. EPA also had specific questions about discrepancies in the study plan appendices, several of which were submitted as examples. Those discrepancies have been corrected in a revised version of the study plan enclosed with this letter. Please let us know if you have questions, or if you need additional information. Very truly yours, BLUE RIDGE PAPER PRODUCTS INC. DOING BUSINESS AS EVERGREEN PACKAGING 7-(2 Paul Dickens Nick McCracken Manager—Environmental Affairs Water Compliance Coordinator t 828-646-6141 828-646-2874 paul.dickens a,everpack.com nick.mccracken@everpack.com, Doing Business in California as Evergreen Beverage Packaging Tom Belnick, NC DWQ 17 Apr 2012 Page 2 Attachment: Response to EPA comments dated 28 March 2012 concerning the March 2012 Revision to the Color Perception Study Plan Enclosure: Proposal for Site Specific Study of Color in the Pigeon River—April 2012 cc (w/attachment& enclosure): DWQ ARO Color Team, Internal Distribution Canton Officeever evergreen g packaging i 175 ore Streel• Coolurf, ►�NC28/16 Attachment Blue Ridge Paper Products Inc. dba Evergreen Packaging (BRPP) Response to EPA Comments dated 28 March 2012 concerning the March 2012 Revised Color Perception Study Plan 17 April 2012 Comments on Revised Color Perception Study dated 28 Mar 2012 received from EPA via DWQ were in two parts. EPA Comments- Part 1 of 2: EPA COMMENTS ON REVISED PIGEON RIVER COLOR PERCEPTION STUDY The EPA appreciates the revisions that were made to the original study plan based on our March 6 comments and the inclusion of more detail regarding how the study will be conducted. We do have the following comments based on the revised study plan. If the color study is conducted and used to support a future removal of the existing color variance, our goal is that the study be as credible and scientifically supportable as possible. 1. EPA Comment-Dr. Cherry's response 41 to EPA's previous comments alludes to a statistical analysis of observer ratings, but provides no details regarding that analysis. We request additional details regarding how observer ratings for the three days of observation will be analyzed and assessment of aesthetic quality will be conducted, especially in light of comments#4 and #5 below. We request this so there is up front agreement and less need to question the basis behind any study conclusions. Response Our response is in two parts — how data may be analyzed and presented and what specific perception data will be collected in the field. Data Analysis - Perception study data on the aesthetic aspects of the water will be organized by descriptive statistics into a group mean, range, and standard deviation of observation ratings for all categories and individual aspects for each observation site. Correlations between ratings and color will be determined for each site and across sites. The statistical evaluation of data including ANOVA, simple t-test and correlation will determine if there are significant differences and relationships between and among ratings at each site. 4rr-4, hit rfr sign ,r Doing Business In California as Evergreen Beverage Packaging Response to EPA Comments, Page 2 Examples of how the perception study data on a specific observation day and on all observation days may be statistically evaluated and summarized are illustrated in the following table and graph. Other examples appear in the published color perception studies cited in the revised study plan. Example Statistical Comparisons for Color Perception Study (illustration only) RM RM RM RM RM RM RM RM 24.7 42.6 48.3 52.8 61.2 62.9 62.5 67.5 Perception Study Brown's HEPCO Ferguson Clyde Thickety Fiber- Canton Wells Rd Data Bridge Bridge Bridge Bridge 02 ville Park Aesthetic Aspects • Scenic Beauty ANOVA,t-tests and correlations on individual aesthetic aspects at each • Color observation site and across all observation sites to test relationships and • Clarity trends. Purpose is to determine how individual aspects are related and • Wading how individual aspects affect overall aesthetic rating scores.Additional • Swimming purpose is to determine any statistical difference or similarity between • Fishing observation sites on each observation day and on all observation days. • Rafting, canoeing, boating River Quality Data ANOVA,t-tests and correlations of individual aesthetic aspects and overall rating scores against color and turbidity data across all observation sites. • Apparent Color Purpose is to determine statistical differences between sites, relationships • True Color between color and turbidity, and if aesthetic ratings are statistically • Turbidity correlated with color and turbiditydata. ANOVA,t-tests and correlations of individual aesthetic aspects, overall River Flow rating scores,and color and turbidity data against river flow and mill color discharge data across all observation sites. Purpose is to determine Canton Mill Color statistical differences between sites,relationships between color,turbidity, Discharge river flow and mill color discharge,and if aesthetic ratings are statistically correlated with river flow and mill color discharge. Environmental ANOVA on environmental attitude survey elements to compare to control Attitudes Survey group norms and then across rating scores to test for bias. Purpose is Elements validation of the perception study data. Response to EPA Comments, Page 3 Example Presentation of Aesthetic Rating Data (illustration only) Range and Mean of Aesthetic Quality Rating by Pigeon River Mile on DATE tw 7 ---- -.--------—- - ---- 0 6 t 5 co 4 - - a s a2 — ------- - Q .E1),AS Ok o EXAMPLE �s�q � �s° �'% °� ° °�A r• 7 not actual data 0 Perception Data — In its letter dated February 22, 2010 regarding the NPDES permit ultimately issued in May 2010 and effective June 1, 2010, the EPA suggested a study such as the Color Perception Study proposed by Evergreen Packaging to assess ambient color levels in the Pigeon River in North Carolina. The purpose of the Perception Study is to assess, in a quantitative fashion, the aesthetic component of the North Carolina narrative standard for color. The proposed study will obtain data on how independent observers perceive ambient color levels in the river, at different locations, in different seasons, under different flow conditions, and how these perceptions affect the observers' opinions about use of the water. Drs. Prestrude and Cherry designed the Color Perception Study to obtain data on seven (7) "aspects of the water" in three (3) general categories that put the evaluation of ambient color into context of appearance and appropriateness for use. These aspects are: Response to EPA Comments, Page 4 • Scenic beauty o Upstream and downstream • Appearance of the water o Color o Clarity • Activities o Wading o Swimming o Fishing o Rafting, canoeing, boating Scenic beauty is an important anchor to determine how the environmental setting may boost or take away from other ratings specific to appearance of the water and appropriateness for use. [See response to EPA comment 2]. 2. EPA Comment- The revised study plan and written instructions in Appendix G indicate that scenic beauty will be evaluated at each site, along with water color and water clarity. Our interpretation is that"scenic beauty" includes both the River and the land surrounding the River. Because "scenic beauty" includes a land component that is not a direct measure of the aesthetic quality of the Pigeon River and that land component is likely to be the factor that will be focused on the most (rather than the River color), how will observers' scenic beauty ratings be used vs. ratings for combined water clarity+ color? Without further clarification,we strongly recommend that"scenic beauty" not be assessed and that the revised study plan not include it. Response Because no observer can look at a river in a vacuum, the observer cannot help but notice the surrounding topography, vegetation and land use when approaching an observation site. Rating of scenic beauty is an important anchor and will be included in the data collected for the Perception Study. The data can be analyzed with scores for scenic beauty included or not included. A combined score, including scenic beauty, may or may not be more predictive than one without, but that cannot be determined if the observers do not rate sites for impression of scenic beauty. Observer comments recorded on field rating sheets are valuable in this determination. Response to EPA Comments, Page 5 3. EPA Comment- The revised study plan states that observer ratings will be collected after each site assessment. Because observers will view upstream reference"clean" sites last, if they then realize they want to change previous ratings for any downstream site, will they be allowed to do that? Response Observers will not be allowed to change ratings for any prior rated sites. It is standard practice to collect the completed ratings sheet upon conclusion of the observation at each site. It is also standard practice in rating scale procedures to instruct observers not to look at other observers' ratings or discuss their ratings. Similarly, raters are asked for their first response. Observers will be instructed not to use their mobile phones or other electronic devices for any purpose. The study procedure would not be valid if observers were allowed to change their ratings after seeing the mill or sites above the mill. The example Field Instructions to Observers and the Site Observation sheets in Appendices G & H have been revised and reformatted to comport with our response to EPA comments 1, 2 M. 4. EPA Comment- The environmental attitudes questionnaire/environmental response inventory in Appendix D was not a part of the original study plan. The majority of its questions do not directly assess one's environmental views (e.g., #62—"I would enjoy entertaining famous people"; #106—"I like to ride on roller coasters"; #113 -Birth control practices should be accepted by everyone.) It is difficult to understand the basis of further excluding observers based on the responses to this questionnaire. Because observers have already been screened regarding current or past affiliation with several environmental groups, it seems the inventory is being used to further exclude observer ratings that might be considered as "extreme." If available,we request additional details regarding the basis of the questions and how responses are judged to determine environmental attitudes that reflect a central tendency and the basis for excluding those outside one standard deviation from the mean from providing relevant observations during the survey. Response In discussion with Drs. Prestrude and Cherry, we understand that the Environmental Attitudes Questionnaire / Environmental Response Inventory is an important control to add credibility to the Color Perception Study. We defer to their expertise that this recognized standard environmental attitude tool and control should be part of the Color Perception Study of the Pigeon River. Dr. Prestrude provides more detail below to explain how the questionnaire is used. Response to EPA Comments, Page 6 Prestrude - Neither the Environmental Attitudes Questionnaire nor the vision tests are used to exclude observers. We have used these procedures in three other river color studies and have not excluded an observer yet. They are included as a set of controls. All observers' ratings will be included in the data set, but if an observer or observers do not match the norms, we can look at the data set with and without their ratings. Actually, by my count, at least 110 of the items in the ERI [Environmental Response Inventory] are clearly environmental. All of the items derive from an initial base of over 300 self-report statements. Over 3000 people responded to these items. These responses were analyzed by determining the correlation of each item with every other item. Then, by factor analysis, the items were grouped into "factors" or scales defined by significant inter-correlations among all the items that make up a scale. This process is described in the ERI manual. Even items that don't seem to refer to the environment can be valid because of their relationship to environmental attitudes. 5. EPA Comment- If observers will be disqualified based on both the visual screening and the environmental inventory, it appears that evaluations will not be based on 25 observers, but a substantially smaller subset that may not be a credible minimum. What is the minimum number of observers needed for a given day of observation? What happens if that minimum number is not achieved? Based on the concerns in comment 44 and here, it is difficult for EPA to support use of the environmental response inventory. Response A sufficient number of observers will be selected and screened to ensure that there are a sufficient number of observers on each observation day. Discussion with Drs. Prestrude and Cherry indicates that a target of 25 observers will provide sufficient statistical power for a valid study, even if there are a few absences. Concerning the environmental response inventory (EPA comment 4), it is an important study control and will be included. The questionnaire is completed at the end of the day after all sites have been rated. Based on Dr. Prestrude's experience with prior color perception studies, the number of observers excluded by screening is minimal, and there are no problems mobilizing sufficient numbers on observation days. 6. EPA Comment- Dr. Cherry's response#14 states that non-registered voters will not be excluded as participants. However, question 6 of the Appendix C sample screening sheet indicates that a non-registered voter will be excluded. We recommend that question 6 be deleted. 7. EPA Comment-Dr. Cherry's response#12 states that the participant selection screen will ask potential observers whether or not they have visual acuity or color perception problems. However, question 8 of the Appendix C screening sample addresses vision Response to EPA Comments, Page 7 only in the context of riding in a van or walking. We recommend that question 8 be revised to "Do you have any unaddressed physical or vision restrictions such as color blindness or nearsightedness?" 8. EPA Comment-Dr. Cherry's response#16 states that canoers and rafters will be allowed to participate, but question 13 of the Appendix C screening sample still specifically excludes them. Question 13 should be revised so that canoers/rafters are not excluded. 9. EPA Comment-Dr. Cherry's response#17 states that members of various environmental groups that have challenged the most recent mill permit will be excluded, but question 14 has not been revised to include the names of those groups. Response to EPA Comments 6-9 All of the Appendix examples have been revised to comport with the text of the study plan and previous response to comments. 10. EPA Comment- EPA's original comment#8 related to the color levels occurring in the river during the surveys. Our concern is that the ambient color levels should be in the range of 50 to 120 pcu during the surveys. If the ambient color levels are not in this range, it is not clear that the study will achieve its intended propose. For example, if instream color levels are not greater than 50 pcu during the site visits, and the observers' opinions support the conclusion that the aesthetic criterion is being met,that scenario leaves open the question as to whether higher ambient color levels also meet the aesthetic criterion. NC water quality standards require that the narrative color criterion be met at flows at or above the 30Q5 instream flow. From EPA's perspective, it would not be sufficient, based on the scenario that observers' ratings during all of the site visits support an outcome that the color narrative is met, to conclude that continuation of the color effluent limits at levels in the current permit is consistent with the color narrative—unless the highest ambient color levels during the site visits were consistent with the projected ambient color levels that would occur at the current color effluent limits and the 30Q5 flow. EPA has estimated that the current permit color limits,when discharged at the 30Q5 flow, results in ambient color levels in the middle of the 50 to 120 pcu range. Therefore,we suggest that the study include a contingency plan if ambient color levels in the upper part of this range do not occur during the site visits. Response Observations from independent observers under normal mill operating conditions, on different dates and under different river flow conditions will provide a statistically accurate analysis to support the interpretation and application of North Carolina's narrative color standard to the Pigeon River near Canton. The governing flow for the NC Narrative Standard is 30Q2, not 30Q5. The 30Q2 at Canton is 58 mgd. We understand that EPA recommended an assessment of ambient color levels in the range of 50 to 120 platinum cobalt units. Because we Response to EPA Comments, Page 8 cannot control or ensure color levels in a specific range in the Pigeon River, three observations in different seasons and river flow conditions are necessary for an accurate Perception Study that accounts for the river's natural variability. It would be inappropriate for the Canton Mill to increase color discharge or throttle river flow as was suggested in some preliminary discussions on the Study Plan. Those actions are generally not feasible, and/or are contrary to the NPDES permit. Color discharge on river observation days will reflect normal Canton Mill operation. The low flow period on the Pigeon River typically occurs between August and October of each year. We will monitor how river base flow is trending this summer and adjust plans for the 3`d Quarter observation to correspond with the period of normal annual river low flow. Delay in the date of the 3` observation trip may push back the date by which the study data can be analyzed and the final study report prepared. EPA Comments -Part 2 of 2 Based on Dr. Cherry's numbered responses to our first round of comments: EPA Comment No. 4 - The statement that there is a psychological bias that comes from seeing the upstream water is not intuitively obvious just by providing this statement. If it is not scientifically explained using references, it will be questioned by outside parties. Please provide the references that explain the psychological bias for this bias. This is the same comment as original EPA Comment No. 4b. Response The purpose of this study is not to assess differences in color of the Pigeon River above and below the mill, but rather the appearance of the water and appropriateness for use at each observation site. The planned order in which sites are observed forces a site by site independent assessment that is separate from point and non-point contributions of color, turbidity and other factors influencing aesthetic quality. The mill is large and cannot be avoided when viewing the upstream sites, which creates a bias that all downstream conditions observed are related to the mill. The study design removes the observers' awareness of the mill to the greatest extent possible so that observations are neutral evaluations of the water. The observation sites at Fiberville and at the Recreation Park have the mill as part of the background environmental setting, the effect of which will be evaluated with the scenic beauty rating. Dr. Prestrude has provided references on bias that are included in the revised plan. A key reference is the Masters Thesis by Laws [Laws, E. L. (1990). THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONS ON SCENIC BEAUTY RATINGS OF RIVERSCAPES AND THE PREDICTION OF THOSE RATINGS BY ENVIRONMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRES. MS Thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.] Response to EPA Comments, Page 9 EPA Comment No. 14 - This is a new selection method not previously mentioned. The statement that residents from the local geographic area only should be used should be explained. What will be the extent of the geographic area and what value will that add? Response The standard being evaluated is the North Carolina narrative standard for color. Information on county and state of residence will be used by the opinion research agency that recruits and screens observers to obtain a mix of independent observers from the Western North Carolina region. There is also the practical matter of travel distance. The observers need to live within a reasonable commuting distance of Waynesville, NC where the observers will gather at the start of each observation day. EPA Comment No. 16 - The statement is made to avoid rafters from Tennessee. Why?No explanation is given. Response The screening tool to recruit observers has been clarified to exclude rafting -guides working on the Pigeon River in Tennessee. These guides as a group participated in the February 2010 public meeting on the Canton Mill NPDES permit in Cocke County and were active in Clean Water Expected in East Tennessee (CWEET). EPA Comment PaLle 5 -Rating Scales. Clarity and color scores will be combined for one score on water quality? Why will the values for color and clarity be combined? Why not keep those scores separate? Many people may not understand the definition of clarity, so those scores may not provide a sound basis for evaluation vs. color which is the main object of the study. Clarity is also not the basis for the variance. Calling the combined scores 'water quality' gives the impression that it is rating more than color and clarity but is somehow rating the quality of the water. If they are combined (which we do not suggest)the combined score should be called the 'combined score for color/clarity'. Response See response to Part 1 EPA comments 1& 2 above. Color and clarity are separate aspects of the aesthetic component. Separate rating of clarity is necessary to separate the turbidity element of apparent color from true color which is dissolved. Color is tint. Clarity is how far into the water you can see. For example, are the rocks in the river bottom visible? Drs. Prestrude and Cherry have determined, based on prior color perception studies, that the average independent observer intuitively understands the difference between color and clarity without explanation. These are important aspects of the appearance of the water to evaluate and relate to the Mill color discharge as well as to non-point and tributary sources that affect the appearance of the main stem of the Pigeon River. Response to EPA Comments, Page 10 The NC narrative standard for color includes the qualitative element of acceptable (not objectionable) aesthetic quality. The interpretation and application of the standard to the Pigeon River near Canton should be based on the ratings of independent and neutral observers who, at a minimum, are not water quality experts, not associated with the mill and not associated with legal challenges to the wastewater permit. Blue Ridge Paper expressly asked the experts — Drs. Prestrude and Cherry— to design a Color Perception Study that is independent so the results are credible to all parties involved in continued protection and improvement of the Pigeon River. Proposal for Site Specific Study of Color in the Pigeon River Albert M. Prestrude, Ph.D. and Donald S. Cherry, Ph.D. April 2012 Introduction and Background The 2010 Color Variance issued by the NPDES Committee of the North Carolina Environmental Management Commission ("EMC") includes the following language in paragraph 12.13. on page 14. Compliance with the North Carolina color standard in the Pigeon River shall be established by results from a site-specific study of color in the Pigeon River. The study protocol shall be approved by DWQ and will generally be as outlined in EPA's letter of February 22, 2010 to DWQ. Results of this study shall be evaluated by the FMC's NPDES Committee as part of any new request to remove the variance. The language, beginning on page 5 of the EPA letter of February 22, 2010, reads as follows: Recommendation For Site-Specific Study In order to create a better record for any future effort to reinterpret the narrative color standard, and ensure that authorized discharges are protective of the narrative standard, EPA recommends the addition of a condition in the draft permit requiring the permittee to provide funding for an independent study of color levels in the North Carolina segment of the Pigeon River, or a segment of a watershed that is reasonably similar to the physical characteristics of the Pigeon River downstream of the mill. The study should focus on the aspects of the State's narrative color standard that are relevant to conditions and limits on the permit, and should address assessment of color levels in ambient waters of the Pigeon River (or other watershed(s), as specified above) when those levels are in the range of 50 to 120 PCU.. The permit could also include a reopener clause to implement the conclusions of the study if warranted. EPA believes that an independent, unbiased site-specific study would be useful to determine how the State's narrative color standard should be interpreted or applied to the Pigeon River near R&S 928021-1 Color Perception Study Plan—April 2012, Page 2 Canton. Such a study would be valuable in addressing uncertainties relating to the narrative standard for color because many site-specific factors influence the overall perception of an individual stream setting and the level of protection needed for a stream or watershed. Evaluation of the Pigeon River downstream of the Blue Ridge mill is even more critical for setting regulatory targets, given the color levels in the river, and the public interest in the present permitting process for the Blue Ridge facility. The study would be conducted with unbiased observers. For example, college students were used in some of the studies performed by Prestrude. The results of the study could be used by the State to address other issues related to the application of the North Carolina narrative color standard, such as whether it would be more appropriate to establish a regulatory requirement for the river solely based on a specific color concentration, or as an increment over "background" color levels. We also suggest that EPA be involved in the review and approval of the framework of the plan for conducting the study prior to initiation. North Carolina Water Quality Standard for Color The North Carolina water duality standard for color is set forth at 15A N.C.A.C. 2B.021 1 (f) and reads as follows: 69 Oils, deleterious substances, colored or other wastes: only such amounts as shall not render the waters injurious to public health, secondary recreation or to aquatic life and wildlife or adversely affect the palatability of fish, aesthetic quality, or impair the waters for any designated uses. Proposed Study Blue Ridge Paper Products Inc. d/b/a Evergreen Packaging ('BRPP")proposes to fund a study of color levels in the Pigeon River in North Carolina focusing on the aesthetic component of North Carolina's narrative color standard relevant to conditions and limits in the NPDES permit issued to the Canton Mill. The study will be done, generally in accordance with the protocol described in the EPA letter of February 22, 2010, to the North Carolina Division of Water Quality. The study will be conducted by Albert M. Prestrude,Ph.D. of Alcyon Consulting Color Perception Study Plan—April 2012, Page 3 and Donald S. Cherry, Ph.D. Dr. Prestrude is an expert in environmental psychology and has performed similar color perception studies on rivers in the United States. Dr. Cherry, an expert in aquatic ecotoxicology, has worked on similar color perception studies in the past, and is the author of numerous articles in peer reviewed journals and publications. Curriculum Vitae for Drs. Prestrude and Cherry are attached (see Appendix A). Both Dr. Prestrude and Dr. Cherry are retired from the faculty at Virginia Tech. Graduate students at Virginia Tech assisted in past studies. The study will focus on the aesthetic component of the North Carolina Water Quality Standard for Color by measuring independent observers' perceptions of the aesthetic quality of the Pigeon River in North Carolina above and below the Canton Mill. The observers will be taken to a number of different locations along the river and asked to answer a series of questions designed to assist them in evaluating the sites. Study Procedures • Observation Sites — Eight sites on the Pigeon River, all in North Carolina, have been selected for observation. Drs. Prestrude and Cherry have visited and inspected all the sites. The sites were selected to be approximately equidistant (between sites), to be accessible, to accommodate vans and passengers and to limit traffic hazards. The site locations are shown on the map in Appendix B. The observations will begin at the North Carolina / Tennessee line and work upstream so as not to bias the observers. The observation sites include the end of the mixing zone (Fiberville Bridge) and two locations above the Canton Mill discharge. • Independent Observers - Twenty-five (25) independent observers will be recruited and selected from the western North Carolina area by an independent consulting firm. Observers will be screened for biasing factors and ability to carry out the requirements of the study (Appendix C). For example, individuals Color Perception Study Plan—April 2012, Page 4 who work, have worked, or are related to current or past employees of the Canton Mill, will be excluded. Individuals with uncorrected vision problems, with conditions limiting or precluding spending several hours in a van, getting into and out of a van, and walking short distances on uneven terrain, will not be recruited. Individuals who are or have been members of entities involved in prior or pending litigation against the Canton Mill will not be recruited. On the dates of the observations, observers will be screened for visual acuity, color vision and contrast sensitivity. The observers will be asked to report to a central location in Haywood County,North Carolina where they will be provided a light breakfast and receive instructions. After the observations, the observers will be provided lunch and will complete an environmental attitudes questionnaire consisting of 184 statements regarding the environment and its use. The respondents indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement with each statement (Appendix D). All observers will also be given visual acuity and color vision tests (Appendices E and F). The number of observers will be limited to twenty-five (25) to ensure observer safety, to allow all observers to view a site at the same time, and to allow all observers to observe all sites on the same day. Based on prior experience, screening observers for visual acuity, color vision and environmental attitudes will not result in an insufficient number of observers. • Personnel — Research Supervisor (A.M. Prestrude), three assistants, professional photographer, van drivers and security personnel to direct traffic. The assistants are Virginia Tech graduates with previous experience in this type of environmental study. • Procedures — Dr. Prestrude will introduce himself, the assistants, and the photographer and describe the procedures. Each observer will be given a clipboard and pencil. Each clipboard will have a written copy of the instructions (Appendix G) with the observer's number and multiple copies of the ratings scale. There will be a brief practice session in which the observers will look at slides of Color Perception Study Plan—April 2012, Page 5 river scenes and rate them. These ratings will be collected and filed. The observers will then be sent to the waiting vans. Two of the assistants will act as van leaders to organize and direct the activities of the observers in their vans and at each site. The third assistant will be responsible for collecting the rating scales at each site. Observers will be instructed to turn off their mobile phones. No incoming or outgoing calls or internet searching will be allowed. Observers will be asked to remove sunglasses. Water, soft drinks and snacks will be available in the vans. There will be bathroom stops along the way. Uniformed security personnel will direct traffic at each site. • Site Evaluations — The sites will be evaluated on three different dates. Exact dates have not been identified, but it is anticipated that the observations would be done during spring and summer of 2012 representing river conditions in May, June/July and August/September. Water samples will be collected at each site by an independent environmental consulting firm and will be analyzed for conductivity, total dissolved solids, and true and apparent color. The analysis for true and apparent color will be done by an independent laboratory and by the Canton Mill laboratory. Analysis for all other parameters will be done by an independent laboratory. Observation events will not be done within three days of a measurable rain event. Individual observers will be contacted via e-mail or phone on the day prior to the event to remind them to be there, or in the case of bad weather, that there will not be an event. Multiple light levels will determined and noted at each site and a computerized photographic record will be maintained of water appearance, sky conditions, upriver and downriver views and the location of the observers when they made their ratings. • Materials—Observers will be provided with 7—Point Likert(Likert, 1932) scales with anchors at 1 (unacceptable), 4 (acceptable), and 7 (very attractive) (see Appendix H). This rating procedure, called magnitude estimation, has been used by psychologists and psychophysicists for 200 years to quantify human perceptual experience. The rating procedure has also been adopted in other venues. For Color Perception Study Plan—April 2012, Page 6 example, in gymnastics and figure skating, contestants are judged and scored on a numeric scale, of 1 to 7 or 1 to 10. In recent years,numeric scales have been used to evaluate fire and insect damage to national forests (see e.g. Buyhoff, Wellman and Daniel, 1982) and studies of the impact of treated industrial effluent on receiving waters (Laws, 1990); (Prestrude, 1996, COLOR: Misperceptions About the Aesthetics of River Color); (Prestrude & Laws, 1988 [study on the Hiwassee River for Bowaterl) (Prestrude, Laws and McMurly, D.K. — Hiwassee River Color Perception Study, Proceedings, 1991 Environmental Conference, Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, pages 599-614). These procedures typically result in at least interval scales of measurement from which the numbers can be summarized and subjected to statistical analysis (Stevens 1950; 1975). • Rating Scales -There will be seven rating scales on each sheet. The first scale will refer to the scenic beauty/aesthetic quality of the site looking up river and down river. The second scale will refer to the color of the water. The third scale will refer to the clarity of the water. The last four scales will refer to the acceptability of each site for recreational activities including wading, swimming, fishing, and rafting, canoeing, boating. There will be a space for comments on each rating sheet, and observers will be encouraged to write comments. A sample rating scale is included in Appendix H. • Environmental Response Inventory — Upon completion of the rankings, observers will be asked to complete an environmental attitudes questionnaire (Environmental Response Inventory -McKechnie, 1974, 1977,Appendix D). The results of this test will be used to identify observers with extreme environmental attitudes (defined as one standard deviation above or below the population mean). A copy of the scoring scales for Environmental Response Inventory is attached as Appendix I. • Visual Acuity — Brief visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and color vision testing procedures will be used to determine whether observers have visual problems not Color Perception Study Plan—April 2012, Page 7 identified or reported during the selection screening process. Observers will be thanked for their participation, paid $200 and dismissed. The process should be complete by 3:00 P.M. • Reporting - A report of the study will be prepared and submitted to the North Carolina Division of Water Quality and the United States Environmental Protection Agency on or before January 1, 2013. References 1. Buyhoff, G.J., Wellman, J.D. &Daniel, T.C. (1982). Predicting Scenic Quality For Mountain Pine Beetle and Western Spruce Budworm Damaged Forest Vistas. Forest Science, 28, 827-838. 2. Laws, E.L. (1990). The Effect of Instructions on Scenic Beauty Ratings of Riverscapes and the Prediction of Those Ratings by Environmental Questionnaires. MS Thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 3. Likert, R. (1932). A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140, 1-55. 4. McKechnie, G.E. (1974). Environmental Response Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist's Press. 5. McKechnie, G.E. (1977). The Environmental Response Inventory in Application. Environment and Behavior, 9, 255-276. 6. Prestrude,A.M. &Laws,E.L. (1988). Hiwassee River Study. II. Color perception. Unpublished. 7. Prestude,A.M., Laws,E.L., McMurry, D.K.—Hiwassee River Color Perception Study, TAPPI Proceedings, 1991 Environmental Conference, Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, pages 599-614. 8. Prestrude,A.M.,Misperceptions About the Aesthetics of River Color, 1996. Color Perception Study Plan—April 2012, Page 8 List of Appendices Appendix A Curriculum Vitae of Albert M. Prestrude,Ph.D. and Donald S. Cherry, Ph.D. Appendix B Pigeon River Site Locations Appendix C Sample Screening Sheet Appendix D Environmental Attitudes Questionnaire Appendix E Visual Acuity Test Appendix F Color Vision Test Appendix G Field Instructions to Observers Appendix H Likert Rating Scale Appendix I Environmental Response Inventory Appendix A Curriculum Vitae of Albert M. Prestrude, Ph.D. and Donald S. Cherry, Ph.D. RESUME Albert M. Prestrude December 9, 2011 Born: May 26, 1934, Eastedge, ND Education: BA, Concordia College, Moorhead, MN. Major- psychology, minor - chemistry. MS and Ph.D., Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. Major— experimental psychology, minor- psychobiology. Employment: I held my first job at age 14 washing dishes in a restaurant within a year becoming a grill cook. Through my high school and college years, I worked as a bellhop, cemetery groundskeeper, furniture warehouseman, truck driver, wheat harvester, sheet metal worker, iron worker, and Forest Service fire fighter. 1958-1960 - Public School Teacher, Lolo, MT. 1960-1962 - Psychometrist, Univ. of Montana Counseling Center. 1962-1966 - Instructor, Grays Harbor, College, Aberdeen, WA. 1966-1969 - National Science Foundation Trainee, Florida State University. 1969-2000 - Assistant and Associate Professor, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, VA. Retired as Emeritus Associate Professor. 1995-present - Self employed as Alcyon Consulting. Professional activities at Virginia Tech: Assistant and Associate Department Head, coauthored the application for a graduate program to the Virginia Council of Higher Education, began and chaired the graduate program in Applied-Experimental Psychology, served on numerous departmental, college, and university committees. Consulting: Spent one year at the Naval Aerospace Medical Research Labs as a Visiting Scientist developing vision tests for the selection and evaluation of carrier based tactical jet pilots. US Army Medical Service - served on a committee evaluating their Vision Research Program. Later advised on their program to evaluate and prevent ocular damage from laser range finders. Science Applications International Corp. Classified. Federal Aviation Administration - Develop "non-detonable" training aids for bomb detecting dogs. Five year contract. Environmental impact of treated papermill effluent on receiving waters. Four studies: Bowater Southern Corp., Paper Industry Information Office, Champion Paper, and Blue Ridge Paper. North Carolina Dept. of Water Quality - effect of textile mills on the Catawba River. Expert witness in environmental and hunting accident court proceedings. Numerous research reports published in national and international journals and papers presented at regional, national, and international scientific meetings. Directed the graduate research at the MSc and PhD levels of psychology, engineering, and architecture students Donald S.Cherry, Ph.D.—Three-Page Resume-November 2011 Rank: Professor Discipline:Ecotoxicology Highest Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Clemson University 1973 EDUCATION 1965 Furman University,Greenville,S.C.,B.Sc.Degree,Biology,Secondary Education. 1967 University of Arizona,Tucson,Summer Sessions,Chemistry. 1968 Wofford College,Spartanburg,S.C.,Summer Sessions,Chemistry. 1970 Clemson University,Clemson,S.C.,M.Cs.Degree,("Comparative Radiosensitivity in the Class Insecta"), Zoology,Radioecology. 1972 Duke Univ.,Marine Institute,Beaufort,N.C.,Summer Program in Marine Ecology. 1973 Clemson University,Clemson,S.C.,Ph.D.Degree,("Dynamics of a Piscine Community in a Reservoir Ecosystem"), Zoology,Aquatic Ecology,Environmental Health. PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE 1986 Professor—Biology Department and University Center for Environmental and Hazardous Materials Studies,VA Tech 1981-86 Associate Professor—Biology Department and University Center for Environmental Studies,VA Tech 1976-81 Assistant Professor-Biology Department and University Center for Environmental Studies,VA Tech 1974-76 Visiting Assistant Professor—University Center for Environmental Studies and Biology Department,VA Tech 1973-74 Postdoctoral Appointment with John Cairns,Jr.,University Center for Environmental Studies.Thermal Effects Upon Fish Populations in the New River at a Site-Specific Field Laboratory and Coal Ash Impact Upon Aquatic Food Chains 1972-74 Instructor,Human Ecology,Man and The Environment,General Biology at Clemson University MAJOR AWARDS AND RECOGNITIONS 1990-95 Senior Associate Director—University Center for Environmental and Hazardous Materials Studies TEACHING Description of Teaching Activities: Taught graduate/undergraduate level in Aquatic Ecotoxicology,Hazard Evaluation of Toxic Chemicals,Environmental Toxicology,Limnology,and Principles of Ecology. Student Advising Past Ten Years: Master Candidates:Travis Schmidt,Jessica Yeager,Matthew Hull,Alan Kennedy,Chad Merricks,Theodore Valenti, Branden Locke,Matthew Simon,Brandi Echols,Michael Chanov. Doctoral Candidates:David Soucek,Brandi Echols Major Professor:12 completed.Past 35 years:49 MS/Ph.D.s,14 Post-docs. RESEARCH Description of Research Activities Developing and carrying out eight specific areas of research.(1)Power Plant Ecology and Effects Upon Aquatic Food Chains.Documenting preference and avoidance behavior of fish from lethal exposures to heated,chlorinated discharges and acidic-alkaline pH excursions;studying potential control of Asian clams and zebra mussels that disrupt cooling systems; predicting safe concentrations of fly ash effluent,pH and ash particulate interactions upon aquatic receiving systems.(2) Correlation of Physiological-Biochemical Mechanisms with Toxicological Responses of Fish and Invertebrate Populations from Power Plant Effluents Stressed by Fly Ash and Heavy Metal Effluents.(3)Hazard Evaluation of Toxic Substances in Aquatic Ecosystems-Industry Versus State or Federal Regulatory Agencies.Investigating hazard evaluation of using field,field laboratory,field artificial stream microcosms,laboratory artificial stream systems,and accepted laboratory static and flow- through bioassay techniques;understanding the cost-effectiveness of these protocols to industry;providing the optimal and most applicable results of hazard evaluation studies in accessing environmental impact;developing new or revised protocols to optimize the current and future toxicity testing methodologies to access this area of hazard evaluation between industry and state or federal regulatory agencies.(4)Comprehensive Evaluation of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents—Ecotoxicology,Color Perception and Dioxin Issues.Investigating the potential toxicity of effluents using US EPA approved test organisms and endemic species;carrying out in-river surveys of periphyton,benthic macroinvertebrates,and fish;evaluating scenic river beauty and color perception of darkened effluents;negotiating NPDES permitting between the paper industry and regulatory agencies and being an expert witness in litigious situations.(5)Waste Water Treatment Plant Revisions with Toxicity Reduction Evaluations.(6)Recovery/Restoration Ecology of Damaged Stream/River Ecosystems.Investigating the effects of non-point inputs from abandoned mined land(AML),sedimentation from agricultural runoff,and influences of rural town runoff upon ecosystem integrity.The overall strategy is to develop a watershed-level approach to restoration ecology.(7)Field Surveys for Native Unionids and Their Competitive Interaction with Asian Clams. Emphasis was to determine the most sensitive part of the life cycle of mussels in the laboratory as well as how Asian clam invasion contributes to their demise.(8)Biofouling and Control Strategies for Asian Clams and Zebra Mussels. Evaluating the efficacy and fate/effects of selected molluscicides upon pest organisms and endemic creatures residing in the water column and sediment. More Recent Pertinent Research Activities Conducted research in the recovery/restoration ecology of damaged stream/river ecosystems.Developed the first ecological improvement plan in watershed management prioritizing restoration activities between AML,agriculture and other nonpoint source discharges for the US Department of Justice.Conducted whole effluent toxicity testing for regulatory agencies, and am developing benthic impairment indices for streams adversely influenced by a bank erosion and sedimentation from poor land and use practices.Conducting watershed evaluations(N.Fork Holston River&Clinch River,VA)of point/non-point impacts upon native mussels and developing an improved field/laboratory ecotoxicological testing protocol for ASTM&US EPA standards.Developing an environmentally safe standard of Total Dissolved Solids for the coal mining industry as well as studying hollow fill impacts in headwater streams from mountain top-surface mining activities. RELEVANT RESEARCH PROJECTS Principal Investigator: Evaluation of Coal Mining Discharges for Toxicity in Clinch/Powell River Watersheds,VA. Sponsor: Virginia Coal Association,2007-2011. Principal Investigator: Watershed Evaluations(N.Fork Holston River&Clinch River,VA)of Point/Non-point Impacts upon Native Mussels to Develop an Improved Field/Laboratory Ecotoxicological Testing Protocol for ASTM&US EPA Standards. Sponsor: U.S.Fish&Wildlife Service,2002-2007. Principal Investigator: Development of Ecological Restoration Activities for Ten Watersheds Confluencing with the Powell River Drainage System in Lee and Wise Counties,VA. Sponsor:Virginia Department of Mined Land Reclamation and the U.S.Army Corps of Engineers. 1995-2007. Principal Investigator: Development of Leading Creek Improvement Plan in Meigs County,OH.This was a 7-year project Identifying all major point and non-point source impacts in a 90,000 acre watershed,then prioritizing the 17 major tributaries for restoration purposes,and implementing a best management practice for agricultural uses. Sponsor:American Electric Power Company.1995-2002. Principal Investigator: )cotoxicological Analysis of Point and Non-Point Source Discharges in the Clinch River Watershed,VA. Sponsor:American Electric Power Company.1984-1995. TOTAL GRANT DOLLARS GENERATED PI and CO-PI investigator: $4,500,000 past 10 years;$12,000,000 past 35 years. PUBLICATION TOTAL: 224(Book Chapters,Invited Paper,Journal Articles),236(Published Abstracts,Proceedings)and—330 Industrial Reports of Limited Distribution=790 for Career. RESPRESENTATIVE PUBLISHED ARTICLES,2002 to Present Soucek,D.J.,D.S.Cherry and C.E.Zipper.2002.Aluminum Dominated Toxicity in Neutral Waters Below an Acid Mine Drainage Discharge.Can.J.Aquatic.Sci.58:2396-2404. Cherry,D.S.,J. H.Van Hassel,J.L.Farris,D.J.Soucek and R.J.Neves.2002.Site-Specific Derivation of the Acute Copper Criteria for the Clinch River,Virginia.Human&Evol.Risk Assess.8:591-601. Schmidt,T.S.,D.J.Soucek and D.S.Cherry.2002.Modification of an Ecotoxicological Rating to Bioassay Small Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Watersheds Exclusive of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Analysis.Environ.Tox.Chem.21:1091-1097. Soucek,D.J.,B.C.Denson,T.S.Schmidt,D.S.Cherry and C.E.Zipper.2002.Impaired Acroneurio sp.(Plecoptera,Perlidae) Populations Associated with Aluminum Contaminated in Natural pH Surface Waters.Arch.Environ.Contam.Toxic. 42:416-422. Hull,M.S.,D.S.Cherry,D.S.Soucek,R.J.Currie and R.J.Neves.2002.Comparison of Asian Clam Field Bioassays and Benthic Community Surveys in Quantifying Effects of a Coal-Fired Power Plant Effluent on Clinch River Biota.J.Aquatic Ecosyst.Stress&Recovery.9:271-283. Schmidt,T.S.,D.J.Soucek and D.S.Cherry.2002.Integrative Bioassessment of Small Acid Mine Drainage Mine Drainage Impacted Watersheds in the Powell River Watershed.Environ.Toxic.Chem.21:2233-2241. Bidwell,J.R.,D.S.Cherry and C.E.Zipper.2003.Toxicity Evaluation of a Commercial Bioremediation Agent Mixed with Oil. Environ.Tox Chem.22:84-91. Soucek,D.J.,D.S.Cherry and C.E.Zipper.2003.Impacts of Mine Drainage and Other Non-Point Source Pollutants on Aquatic Biota in the Upper Powell River System,Virginia.Human&Ecol.Risk Assess.9:1059-1073. Currie,R.J.,W.A.Bennett,T.L.Beitinger and D.S.Cherry.2004.Upper and Lower Temperature Tolerances of Three Freshwater Game Fish Species Exposed to 32 Days of Cycling Temperatures.Hydrobiologia.532:127-136. Mummert,A.,T.D.Newcomb,R.J.Neves and D.S.Cherry.2003.Sensitivity of Juvenile Freshwater Mussels to Total and Ionized Ammonia.Environ.Toxic.Chem.22:2554-2560. Kennedy,A.J.,D.S.Cherry and R.J.Currie.2004.Evaluation of Ecologically Relevant Bioassays for a Lotic System Impacted by a Coal-mining Effluent using Isonychia bicolor.Environ.Monit.Assess.95:37-55. Hull,M.S.,D.S.Cherry,and T.C.Merricks.2004.Effect of Cage Design on Growth of Transplanted Asian Clams:Implications for Assessing Bivalve Responses in Streams.J. Environ.Monit.Assess.96:1-14. Kennedy,A.J.,D.S.Cherry and C. E.Zipper.2005.Evaluation of the Ionic Contribution of a Coal Mine Effluent to Biotic Impairment.Arch.Environ.Contam.Tox.49:155-162, Valenti,T.W.,D.S.Cherry,R.J.Neves and J.Schmerfeld.2005.Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Mercury to Early Life Stages of the Rainbow Mussel, Villosa iris(Bivalvia:Unionidae).Environ.Tox.Chem.24:1242-1246. Brown,M.E.,M.Kowalewski,R.J.Neves,D.S.Cherry and M.E.Schreiber.2005.Freshwater Mussel Shells as Environmental Chronicles/Geochemistry Signatures of Mercury-related Extirpations in the North Fork Holston River,Virginia. Envir. Sci.Tech.39:1455-1562. Cherry,D.S.,J.R.Sheller,N.L.Cooper and J.R.Bidwell.2005.Potential Effects of Asian Clam(Corbicula fluminea)Dieoffs on Native Freshwater Mussels(Unionidae)I.Water-column Ammonia Levels and Ammonia Toxicity J.N.Am.Benthol. Soc.24:369-380. Cooper,N.L.,J.R.Bidwell and D.S.Cherry.2005.Potential Effects of Asian Clam(Cobicula fluminea)Dieoffs on Native Freshwater Mussels(Unionidae)II.Pore-water Ammonia.J.N.Am.Benthol.Soc.24:381-394. Valenti,T.W.,J.L.Chaffin,D.S.Cherry,M.E.Schreiber,H.Maurice Valett and M.Charles.2005.Bioassessment of an Appalachian Headwater Stream Influenced by an Abandoned Arsenic Mine.Arch.Environ.Contam.Tox.49:488-496. Cherry,D.S.and D.J.Soucek.2006.Site-specific Impact Assessment Using In-situ Asian Clam(Corbicula fluminea)Testing Compared to Traditional Measures,with a Chronological Review of Asian Clam Biomonitoring.In,Freshwater Bivalve Ecotoxicology.J.L.Farris and J.H.Van Hassel eds.Ch. 11 SETAC Press,Pensacola,FL.pp.285-305. Valenti,T.W.,D.S.Cherry,R.J.Neves,B.A.Locke and J.J.Schmerfeld.2006.Sensitivity of Mussel Glochidea and Regulatory Test Organisms to Mercury and a Reference Toxicant. In,Freshwater Bivalve Ecotoxicology,J.L. Farris and J.H.Van Hassel eds.Ch.14,SETAC Press,Pensacola,FL.pp.351-365. Hull,M.S.,D.S.Cherry,and R.J.Neves.2006. Use of Bivalve Metrics to Quantify Influences of Coal-related Activities in the Clinch River Watershed,Virginia. Hydrobiologia 556:341-355. Locke,B.A.,D.S.Cherry,C.E.Zipper and R.J.Currie.2006.Land-Use Influences and Ecotoxicological Ratings for Upper Clinch River Tributaries in Virginia.Arch.Enviro.Contam.Toxic.51:197-205. Valenti,T.W.,D.S. Cherry,R.J.Currie,J.Jones,R.Mair,R.J.Neves and C.M.Kane.2006.Acute and Chronic Exposure of Early Life Stages of Freshwater Mussels to Chlorine.Environ.Toxic.Contam.25:2512-2518. Simon,M.L.,D.S.Cherry,R.J.Currie and C.E.Zipper.2006.The Ecotoxicological Recovery of Ely Creek and Tributaries(Lee County,VA)after Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage.Environ.Monit.Assess.123:109-124. Merricks,T.C.,D.S.Cherry,C.E.Zipper,R.J.Currie and T.W.Valenti.2007.Coal Mine Hollow Fill and Settling Pond Influences on Headwater Streams in Southwestern Virginia,USA.Environ.Monit.Assess.129:359-379. Echols,B.S.,R.J.Currie and D.S.Cherry.2009.Influence of Conductivity upon Benthic Macroinvertebrates in the North Fork Holston River,Virginia,Downstream of a Point Source Brine Discharge during Severe Low-Flow Conditions. Hum.Ecol. Risk Assess.15:170-184. Echols,B.S.,R.J.Currie and D.S.Cherry.2009.An Investigation of Total Mercury in the North Fork Holston River,Saltville,VA. Hum.Ecol.Risk Assess.15:968-984. Echols,B.S.,R.J.Currie and D.S.Cherry.2010. Preliminary Results of Laboratory Toxicity Tests with the Mayfly,Isonychia bicolor,for Development as a Standard Test Organism for Evaluating Streams in the Appalachian Coal Fields of Virginia and West Virginia.Environ.Monitor.Assess.169:487-500. Echols,B.S.,R.J.Currie T.W.Valenti and D.S.Cherry.2011.An Evaluation of a Point Source Discharge into a Riverine System and Implications for TDS Limitations.Hum.Ecol.Risk Assess.In Press. Echols,B.S.,R.J.Currie and D.S.Cherry.2011.Seasonal Availability and Sensitivity of Two Field Collected Mayflies(Isonychiidae and Heptageniidae)for the Development of a Standardized Toxicity Test:A One-Year Feasibility Study.In Review. Appendix B Pigeon River Site Locations Pigeon River Perception StudyMap up �'�' 'G'�30 '`' Observational Sites Order of Observation River Mile fr S ® Wells Rd. 8 RM 67.5 Canton Recreation Park 7 RM 64.5 Canton Mill Mixing Zone 6 RM 62.9 2 Thickety 02 Station 5 RM 61.2 a 3 { Clyde Bridge 4 RM 58.0 m 6 • U i *Canton Ferguson Bridge 3 RM 48.3 � 7 Hepco Bridge 2 RM 42.6 Brown's Bridge 1 RM 24.7 (Stateline) Appendix C Sample Screening Sheet APPENDIX C EXAMPLE - River Perception Study PARTICIPANT SCREENER - Revised April 2012 Hi, my name is with We're conducting opinion research with individuals who would like to participate in a project about current regional topics which will be held in the spring and summer of 2012. May I ask a few quick questions? I am not selling anything and if you qualify to participate in the research, we would compensate you $200 per study event for your participation. Again, I would like to stress that this is a research study ONLY, and you will not be asked to make any purchases. Everything I ask is solely for research purposes and everything you say is completely confidential. Record but do not ask: 1. Gender? 1.1. Male Recruit 15 1.2. Female Recruit 15 2. Do you or does anyone in your immediate family work for... 2.1. A market research company Discontinue 2.2. An advertising or public relations firm company Discontinue 2.3. A radio station, TV station or Newspaper Discontinue 2.4. Manufacturing company such as: 2.4.1. Paper, pulp or Wood Mill Discontinue 2.4.2. Textile mill 2.4.3. Steel fabrication 2.4.4. Mining 2.4.5. Oil refinery 2.4.6. None of those mentioned 3. Which of the following categories includes your age? (must have a good mix) 3.1. Under 21 Discontinue 3.2. 21-24 3.3. 25-34 3.4. 35-44 3.5. 45-54 3.6. 55-64 3.7. Over 64 4. Have you ever participated in an opinion research study before? 4.1. Yes 4.2. No Skip to Q6 4.3. Don't recall Skip to Q6 R&S 92604 1-1 Screening Tool-Page 2 5. What were the date, location and topic of the most recent past opinion research study in which you participated? 5.1. If anything to do with water quality or Evergreen Packaging, Discontinue 6. In what county and state do you live ? (want representative mix from region) 6.1 7. Do you have any restrictions that would prevent you from spending a weekend day - Saturday or Sunday - on this project? 7.1. Yes Discontinue 7.2. No 7.3. I don't think so 8. Do you have any physical or vision restrictions that would prevent you from walking on uneven terrain or riding for some time in a van? (Safety and comfort consideration) 8.1. Yes Discontinue 8.2. No 8.3. I don't think so 9. Do you have problems with vision such as color blindness, cataracts or nearsightedness that prevent you from seeing well when outside in open spaces? (Visual acuity consideration) 9.1. Yes Discontinue 9.2. No 9.3. I must wear glasses when driving 9.4. I see well when I wear glasses or contact lenses 10. What is the highest grade or year of school you have completed? 10.1. Grade school 10.2. Some high school 10.3. High school graduate/GED 10.4. Some college/Technical School 10.5. College graduate 10.6. Completed an advanced or graduate level degree R&S 92604 1-1 Screening Tool—Page 3 11. What was your 2010 total household income before taxes? Read list circle until NO. 11.1. More than $10,000 11.2. More than $20,000 11.3. More than $30,000 11.4. More than $40,000 11.5. More than $60,000 11.6. More than $80,00 11.7. More than $100,000 11.8. Rather not say/Refused 12. Are you currently... 12.1. Employed full time 12.2. Employed part time 12.3. Retired 12.4. Student 12.5. Unemployed 12.6. Rather not say/Refused 13. What is your occupation If rafting guide working on Pigeon River in Tennessee, Discontinue 14. What are your hobbies or interests 15. Which of the following are you a member, contributor or participate with in any way? 15.1. Dead Pigeon River Council 15.2. Tennessee Chapter of the Sierra Club 15.3. Isaac Walton League 15.4. American Canoeing Association 15.5. Tennessee Environmental Council 15.6. Clean Water Expected in East Tennessee 15.7. Tennessee Conservation Voters 15.8. Tennessee Scenic Rivers Association 15.9. Clean Water for North Carolina 15.10. Western North Carolina Alliance 15.11. Southern Environmental Law Center 15.12. Blue Ridge Environmental Defense League 15.13. None of them If they say yes to any of these organizations, Discontinue R&S 92604 1-1 Screening Tool—Page 4 16. Do you have any restrictions that would prevent you from being in Waynesville, NC on dates? 16.1. Yes Discontinue 16.2. No 16.3. I don't think so We are interested in your thoughts and opinions on current topics in our area. We are conducting a group opinion research study in spring and summer of 2012. You qualify to participate in this opinion research study, and we would like to invite you to take part. Your participation in the study will last several hours on a weekend day starting about 9 am and ending about 3 pm and will include lunch. You will receive $200 dollars for your participation at the end of the session. Will you be able to attend? Yes No Discontinue Great! We would like to send you a confirmation letter. May I have your full name, address, zip code and e-mail? Name Address City State Zip e-mail And I dialed phone number Is that correct? We look forward to seeing you and one of our representatives will meet you at 8:00 a.m. Thank you again for agreeing to attend, we are counting on you to be there. If you find that you can't attend for some reason, please call us @ as soon as possible because we will need to replace you in order to be sure that we have a full group. Thanks, Good Bye! R&S 926041-1 Appendix D Environmental Attitudes Questionnaire A ERI BOOKLET ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE INVENTORY George E. McKechnie i DIRECTIONS This questionnaire is designed to stud), attitudes toward the environment, It contains a series of statements on various subjects. Read each statement and decide whether you agree or disagree with it. Use the following five categories to describe your response: 5 strongly agree / d agree / 3= neutrai / 2 = disagree / 1 = strongly disagree }Follow the instructions on the special answer sheet provided, and mark all of your answers on it, Please do not write in this booklet. Make sure that the number on the answer sheet is the same as the number of the question you are answering in the booklet.. "Try to answer each question, even if you must guess. «.I Copyright, 1971, by Goorge C, Mclkechnic. All rights reserved. No porlion of this material may he reproduced by any process without written permission from the publisher, PublWied try CONSULTING PSYCHOLOGISTS PRESS 577 College Avenue Palo Alto, GaMornia 5=strongly agree ! 4 =agree ! 3 neutral / 2=dis'agree / l =strongly disagree I. I like amusement parks. 34. 1 would enjoy working with precision 2. 1 would enjoy the work or an architect. power tools. 3, Machines increase man's freedom. 35. I have difficulty concentrating when things are noisy. 4, 1 prefer to live in an area where neighbors keep to themselves. 36, 1 would rather remodel an old house than build a new one. i5, 1 would enjoy driving a racing car. I 37. We must move ahead and not worry about . 6, The idea of walking into the forest and past failures. "living off the land" for .r week appeals to me. 38, Cities are too noisy and crowded far me. 7. I.,ife in the City is more interesting than f life on a farm. 39. 1 often feel uneasy in a large crowd of people, 8, 1 would enjoy building a radio, 40. 1 can repair just about anything around � 9. "Graveling isn't really worth the effort, the house. i 41, 1 often have trouble getting the privacy I wunt. I 10, 1 have ma crest thoughts when I am alone. I t. 1 enjoy browsing in bookstores. 47. "There should be a law against anyoin;owning I more than a thousand acres of land. t 12. It would be fun to move around and live in 43. 1 feel most secure when i am working different parts of the country, around the house. 13. It is boring to spend all day working 44. It is hopeless to try,to save our cities. with your hands. E 14, It is exciting to go shopping in a large city. 45. It would be fun to own some i old-fashioned costumes. 15. There should be a law against skyscrapers, 46, Motorcycles should be kept out of 16. 1 like to be by myself touch of the time. recreation areas, 17. 1 enjoy browsing in antique shops. 47. I like modern furniture better than the 18, 1 sometimes daydream of being;stranded more traditional styles. on it tropical island_ 48. 1 would like a job that involved a lot of traveling. 19. 1 like places that have the feeling of being old. 49. It is important for me to own 20. 1 shudder at the thought or finding a spider top quality equipment, in my bed. 50. As a child, I often watched when someone 21, 1 would enjoy traveling around the world repaired thinks around the house, on a sailing ship. 51, 1 like the sounds of a city street, 22, Alleys are interesting places to explore. 52. Old sections of the city are more.interesting 23. 1 prefer a stick-shift car to one with tart than the now areas, automatic transmission. 53. I often feel lonely when I am by myself, 24. 1 like crystal chandeliers. 54, As a child, 1 was taught respect for 25. 1 like homes with stone floors. all living things. 26, I like the variety of stimulation one finds 55. It is good for man to submit to the in the city, forces of nature, 27. 1 usually save spare nuts and bolts. 56. 1 prefer friends who are reliable and 28, 1 get annoyed when my neighbors are noisy. even-tempered. 29, When buying clothes,I usally look more 57, I often think of settling down on a farm for comfort than for style. some da y. 30, 1 aria quite skillful with my hands. 58. 1 don't like being completely alone, 31. It's annoying to have to share an office or 19. 1 would like to live in a modern, work space with someone, planned community. 32. 1 like to visit historic places. 60. Zoning laws and other building controls are 33. Suburbs should replace the city as the center necessary to protect the rights of the public. of cultural life, 61. 1 like things that have precision moving parts. I 5=strongly agree / 4=agree / 3 neutral / 2.-disagree / l =. strongly disagreo 62, 1 would enjoy entertaining famous people. 92, 1 enjoy owning a good piece of equipment, 63. 1 often feel that 1 am a part of the space even if I don't get to use it much. around me, 93. 1 pride myself an having a home.which 64, 1 can identify many of the local flowers and trees, is always open to friends. 65, l would like to work with computers. 94. Fences make good neighbors. 66. I have vivid memories of where I lived 95, 1'd rather live in the suburbs than in the city. as a child. 96, A complex technological society cannot 67, Our national forests should be preserved in their tolerate individuality. natural state, with roads and buildings prohibited. 97, 1 enjoy a change in the weather,even when 68, Flying in a small airplane would it turns bad. - make nit nervous. 98. It is unsafe to ride on buses.these days. 69. As a child, I was afraid of being outside 99. Country people are more honest than city people by myself. 100. diking is boring. 70, It is better if people live out their lives 101, I'd be afraid to live in a place where in one place. there were no people nearby. 71. 1 would enjoy owning a.fancy watch. 102. 1 find street noise very distracting. 72, 1 would enjoy riding,'t motorcycle. )03, 1 have always been somewhat of a daredevil.. 73, Making rain by artificially."seeding"clouds 104, 1 would enjoy riding in a crowded subway, is a great technological advance. 105. i tarn quite sensitive to the"character" 74. 1 enjoy staying up all night, of a building. 75, 1 ant happiest when 1 am alone, 106, 1 like to ride on roller coasters. 76, No child should have to grow up in a rural area, 107 1 enjoy tinkering with mechanical things, 77, 1 get annoyed when people drop by my house 108. 1(io not like to loin things to neighbors, without warning. 109, 1 would enjoy livingg in a historic house. 78. A fireplace adds a special feeling of coziness to a room. 110. Sometimes I wish I had power over the 79, It's interesting to learn about the history farces of nature. of the place where you live. 1 1 1. 1 have no interest in ballet. 80, It is fun to make scale models of things. 112, 1 like to read about the history of places, 81. 1 would enjoy living the rest of my life 113. Birth control practices should be accepted in a large city, by everyone, 82. Electricity fascinates me. 114, Jet air travel is one of the great advances 83, 1 like social gatherings where I can enjoy of our society. myself without worrying about other people. 1 15. 1 have vivid memories of the neighborhood 84. 1 don't think that I would ever want where I grew up. to be hypnotized. 116. I would enjoy going to the opera, 85, Small-town life is too boring for me. 117. Today people are too isolated from the 86. Fertilizers improve the quality of fooa forces of nature. 87. 1 often get the feeling that I just must be alone. I J 8, 1t is easy for me to work undistracted 88. Apersonhas a right to modify the in most situations_ environment to suit his rtceds. 119, 1 like to dress in the latest fashions, 89, Sometimes I'm afraid of too much stimulation-- 120. I seldom pay attention io what I cut, from sounds,colors. odors, etc. 121. It is dangerous to work around heavy machinery. `0- 1 understand the architectural idea that 122, The wilderness is cruel and harsh. form follows function, 123, Modern buildings are seldom as attractive 91. 1 would enjoy working in a flower garden, as older ones. 5 :=strongly agree / 4 =agree / 3 = neutral / 2 =disagree / 1 =strongly disagree l 24, 1 like experimental art. 154. 1 like to say hello to my neighbors. 125. 1 often wish for the seclusion of a 155. 1 enjoy collecting things that most people weekend retreat. would consider junk. 126. t would like to own an expensive camera, 156, There are often times when 1 need 127, Building projects which disrupt the ecology complete silence, should be abandoned and the land returned 157. I worry a lot about the rising crime rate, to its natural state, 158, The cultural life of a big city is 128, The problems of the cities will never be solved. very important to me, 129. 1 am easily distracted by people moving about. 159. 1 like to go to shopping centers where 130. 1 often have trouble finding my way everything is in one place. around a new area. 160. 1 am fond of oriental rugs. 131, In spite of all the talk about pollution, 161. 1 am afraid of heights, the earth is still a safe place to live, 162. People who try to repair appliances themselves 132, 1 need more variety in my life than other usually end up breaking them, people seem to need, 163, 1 would like to live in a palace or a castle. 133, I usually avoid public rest rooms. 164. Sight-seeing is tedious and boring, 134. 1 often have trouble figuring out how to use household appliances. 165. The cities contain the best aspects of 135. 1 usually enjoy having lots of people around. modern life. 136, 1 would enjoy watching movies made 166, It's nice to buy a new car every year or so. 15 or 20 years ago, 167, Bathtubs have become obsolete. 137. Natural resources must be preserved even if 168. Places often play an important role in my dreams. people must do without. 169. 1 would like to build a cabin in the woods. 138. 1 like to get up early to see the sun rise, 170, 1 enjoy being in dangerous places, 139, 1 am afraid of driving in the city. 171. Everyone should have the opportunity to live 140. Trespassing laws should be more in a great city. carefully enforced. 172, It's fun to walk in the rain even if you get wet. 141. 1 am an adventurous person. 173. Old buildings are usually depressing, 142, 1 often have strong emotional reactions 174. 1 would enjoy living on a houseboat, to buildings. 143, There is too little emphasis on privacy 175. Computers may someday take over the world. in our society. 176, 1 like to be on the move, not tied down 144. It is dangerous nowadays to live in a large city, to any one place. 14.5. 1 seldom vary the route 1 take to 177, Mental problems are more common in the city than in the country, everyday destinations. 146, It is important for me to feel that 1 am in 178. Odors often bring back distant memories. harmony with the forces of nature. 179. 1 like to care for animals. 147, When it comes to fixing things, I am hopeless. 180. A man should spend his leisure time at home 148. Modern communities are plastic and ugly. with his family. 181. if I had the money, I would enjoy owning 149. Science does as much harm as good. an expensive stereo set. 150. 1 get upset if I must do too many things at once. 182, 1 feel a great attraction to the sea, 151, I would feel safer on the highway if 183. 1 would rather sleep on the open ground speed limits were reduced, than in a tent. 152. 1 would like to take flying lessons. 184, Given enough time, science will solve 153, Most jewelry is a waste of money, most human problems. EnvironnienLJl Response inventory by 6etirge E_ i1'fcKerhnie, Ph.l7, Name --- - -.. -- —..� RLe— Sak YiN.of Sciyreulyl, Date. _ ----�Piaee on Wire ttvad Ali: di(witona un Ow ruvc; of Iftt ERI Booklei., "I'Ilcry fill ire vuur name and uAter infurmation iequesred;ibove, Reload your rt!spunsc to each ittm in tl)r booklet uI rite squatu wilii th,. malclilog numbs:; l.l4e rht• five response cafegurre5 means strongly agree!4 means agree r`3 means neutral f 2 means disagree! 1 means strongly diugru. ff 1 24 4 7 7ti 931 1 Its I IS,,; f w? 44 ;i 94 tt7 140 tts 1 4,4 72 e» ! J JS 141 1f,4 27 50 7;,+ t.i, I I J�. 142 { , — i 1te� I 51 J 74 i 5: 7{ j 9h 1?I 1 144 16;" :1n 122 1a If,h� 3I -54 7^ 100 1:.3 146 1610 H !ul i 12•t la? i 17o i j it lS SR k; 104 7 1 150 17 I3 36 cy 92 1Iy,; 1 S ial S 174 14 1 3' ltkr 124 30 r {- 1" j t;3 sr 1 74i l I 4 t1_i 1 4 t 44 ;, I110 t 1" 42 0 kY: I 1 i 4 I S s{ !lift ?tl :ji tits 3: 9 II"""`j1 1 5>• I I h 1 i Jn� 1 fiJ, �1u Ji s<,t iJ_ :15 161 I 184 1 f 61, O, nriLONk"1111S LINT' PA OR LA SS G-f AN ivp A1ty ccJ 1? +� ��+ l 3t, 1� 12U �A 24 1f 4 opyrignt 1914.ny Cr,murunt 1',y,UacuLt.t ht:N,. In..by rrnmdur it,,u. tlrt•iurnt, hl:,:witnoui e%prr,,t.ernowur. PROFILE SHEET FOR THE ENN.'`IR0Nl\,,IENTAI__ RESE'C3NSE INVENTO RY : FEMALES Name ,age Sex Date Othcr Information PA UR EA 5S ET AN' :tip ;lit) co NOTES: 100 - -100 -90 .,. 90 _ r 8�3 - -tW 80 _ _-.c_..- — -- �_._.._.•- 90____.._. so B - - - - aD G _ 30 70 - 60 - aC - 70 so 90 _ _ - _ su _ - 90 -70 - 00 - - Ep_ - - -_ -- - - ---- - _ --- -- --- _ ..- -- -- 60 v - - -60 - 70 - _ 4a .b 50 _ sa _ - — 60 ac — 50 - 90 _ - _ - so 40 30 50 - gp a 40 _ - 40 e 20 --= 0 - _. _ _ - 20 40 40 10 -- ---- — 10 20 - . 30 _ - 30 .. _ - 20 _ 1. 1'A GR EA SS ET AN NP N10 C() ReprWL-ced iron,the Manual for the PrIvirortmeniA Rapon a Inventor}. �'Cup)right 1974.by C.onsuliin,Psykrhologists prcc.,im. PROFILE SHEET FOR THE I NVIRCWNIENJAI. RESPONSE INVENTORY : ► ALES Name Age— Sex Datc VA UR EA S,w F I' AN N1' ;Ul© co NOTIES. 100 —ic» go - r L4 9c i - - _ - TO y r� ^0 -60 - 70 - 8 - 5010 c —30 2 —20 ��:� k)R ET AN NP Nita Co Appendix E Visual Acuity Test (Standard Eye Chart) print full-size on 8.5x11 inch paper 200 FT. 20 61 M 200 40 100 FT. 100 30.5 M 3E 20 70 FT, 70 21.3M 20 50 FT. so L 3P E D I5.2 M 20 40 FT. ;F 12.2 M 3? C 3r D lo- F Z � D 9.1 M4 M 20 25 FT. 25 or E L 0 P Z D 7.62M 20 D E F IP 0 T E 0 20 FT. 20 6.10 M Appendix F Color Vision Test CO-1or Vision Test EMW On hdar ' s the Cho* box Rw rUmbw boxfar knot T"t k Tut Im 0 ; nom i �l A� ea aj a_atiM.1�r+ •iY sr rt mxbw Nm 1-4 Nkm eq i ON IMP - i Number No Nwa I Appendix G Field Instructions to Observers Appendix G — EXAMPLE Field instructions to study participants You are observer # You are participating in a study of the scenic beauty of rivers. We will visit eight (8) sites where you will be asked to give your opinion in the form of numerical ratings. At each site we visit today, you will use a rating sheet to record your observations. On the rating sheet, you will find a list of seven (7) aspects" of the water. Each aspect will have a rating scale numbered from 1 to 7. The number scale is: 1 = "unacceptable" 4 = "acceptable" 7 = "very attractive" or "very appropriate" Aspect 1 - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 4 - - - 5 - - - 6 - - - 7 Circle the rating number or dash between numbers that corresponds to your opinion. Please give us your first impression. If your impression rating is between numbers, the dashes represent quarter points. For example, if your rating is 4.5, circle the middle dash between 4 and 5. Feel free to write comments in the spaces provided on any aspect of the rating and site. Please do not discuss or compare your ratings with the other observers during or after your site visit. Please do not use your cell phone, smart phone or wireless device until today's trip to observe river sites is concluded. Your Van Leader will collect your rating sheets as they are completed at each site. * Aspect of the water refers to its appearance or appropriateness for use. Appendix H Likert Rating Scale Appendix H - EXAMPLE Site Observation Sheet Site # Observer # Look in the direction indicated by your Van Leader and rate the scenic beauty of that view. Circle the rating number or dash between numbers that corresponds to your opinion. The number scale is: 1 = unacceptable 4 = acceptable 7 = very attractive Upriver 1 - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 4 - - - 5 - - - 6 - - - 7 Downriver 1 - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 4 - - - 5 - - - 6 - - - 7 Comments: Now rate the appearance of the water: Color 1 - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 4 - - - 5 - - - 6 - - - 7 Clarity 1 - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 4 - - - 5 - - - 6 - - - 7 Comments: Rate the site for its appropriateness for each of the following activities (disregard accessibility and water depth). Circle the rating number or dash between numbers that corresponds to your opinion. The number scale is: 1 = unacceptable 4 = acceptable 7 = very appropriate Wading 1 - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 4 - - - 5 - - - 6 - - - 7 Swimming 1 - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 4 - - - 5 - - - 6 - - - 7 Fishing 1 - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 4 - - - 5 - - - 6 - - - 7 Rafting, canoeing, 1 - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 4 - - - 5 - - - 6 - - - 7 boating Comments: Van Leader- record date and time the observation sheet was collected Appendix I Environmental Response Inventory Table 1: Environmental Response Inventory Scales HIGH SCORERS ARE OFTEN LOW SCORERS ARE OFTEN DESCRIBED AS: SCALE AND MAJOR THEMES: DESCRIBED AS: Atsthctic, affectionate,complicated, dis- PA(Pmiotubsm). Opposition to land develop. Apathetic, conscientious, conservative, tractible, outspoken, progressive, rebel- went;concern about popul; l n artm h;pmser- conventional, deliberate, dependable, lious, unconventional, unpredictable, vation of natural resources, including open friendly,honest,practical,self-controlled. selfish. space;acceptance of natural forces as shapers of human lift;sensitivity to pure environmental experiences; self suf5cicncy in the natural environment, Critical, skeptical, responsive to urban UR (Urbanism). Enjoyment of high density Conscientious, conventional, friendly, aesthetics, highbrow, concerned with living; appreciation of unusual and varied generous, nonverbal, opporumistic, ro• philosophical problems in lift,valuing in- stimulus paitcros of the city;interest in cultural bust,simple, unselfish. tellectual activity,managerial interests, life; enjoyment of interpersonal richness and diversity. Autocratic,condescending, conservative, EA (Environmental Adaptation). Modification Atdstic,awkward,compassionate,curious, efficient, cnttMris1nS, extroverted, hard- of the environment to satisfy needs and desires, distractible, idealistic, introspective, headed,mannerly,methodical,power and and to provide comfort and leisure;opposition moody, nonconforming, sensitive, sen- money oriente-cl,Judgmental,aesthetically to governmental control over private land use: suous,worrying,forthright, unresponsive, preference for highly designed or adapted en. vironments:use of technology to solve environ- mental problems; preference for stylized en- vironmental details. Adventurous, disorderly, distractible, SS (Stimulus Seeking). Interest in travel and Conscientious, conservative, fastidious, dreamy,easy-going,immature,impulsive, exploration of unusual places; enfnymenl of practical,mspc msibk,rigid,severe,sringy, progressive, unconventional, undepend- complex and intense physical sensations; able. breadth of interests, Capable, eompclect, diligent, efficient, ET (Fnvironmental Trust), General environ- Biller.cold, coarse,dissatisfied, distrust- helpful, ingenious, resourceful, stable, mental openness, responsiveness, and trust; ful intolerant, moody, prejudiced, spend- thorough,tolerant, well-adjusted. competence, in finding ones way about the thrift,unkind. environment vs. fear of potentially dangerous environments;security of home;fear of being alone and unprotected. Affectionate, artistic, changeabie, de- AN (Antiquarianism). Enjoyment of antiques Coarse, cool, conservative, deliberate, pendent, dreamy, emotional, forgiving, rind historical places;preference for traditional mischievous, moralistic, practical, sly, idealistic, introspective, aesthetically vs. modem design; aesthetic sensitivity to stolid. unemotional. reactive, wpm• man-made environments and to landscape: appreciation of cultural artifacts of earlier eras; tendency to colket objects for their emotional significance. Aloof, arrogant, autocratic, bitter, cold, NP (Need for Privacy). Need for physical Appreciative, cooperative, easy-going, formal, hard-hearted, sulky, polished, isolation from stimuli; enjoyment of solitude; friendly,seeking roassurance,warm,seeks resentful,stubborn, dislike of neighboring; need for freedom from acceptance,lacks confidence,introverted_ distraction, Arrogant, conceited, egotistical, hard- MO (Mechanical Orientation). Intereu in Affectionate,feminine,generous,sincere, hearted,masculine,self-seeking,inflexible, mechanics in its various forms; enjoyment in understanding, submissive, sympathetic, sociable,manipulative. working with one's hands; interest in techno. warm, logical processes and basic principles of science: appreciation of the functional properties of objects. Calm, civilized, initiatory, mannerly, pa. CO (Communality). A validity scale, tapping Hard-headed,flinatious,good looking,im- dent,restful,trusting,rule-following, honest, attentive, and careful test-taking atti- mature, opportunistic, vcnatilc, witty. tude; response to items in statistically modal indepcndeni•minded, psychologically manner. complex. 2 EXHIBIT D a 9 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Evergreen Packaging Color Perception Analysis Monica Gehlhausen, M.S., Statistician Mia Lyst, M.S., Director of Development and Business Analytics Summary Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. was requested to perform statistical analyses on the Evergreen Packaging Color Perception study data collected during three events in 2012. The purpose of the analysis was two-fold: 1) to identify which sites showed statistically different or similar river characteristics, and 2) to evaluate whether the characteristic ratings at the different sites along the river were considered acceptable. Based on the seven-point Likert scale used in the study, a value of 4 is considered acceptable. All analysis was performed using SAS/STAT software. Conclusion The June data showed that all sites had a median rating no different than or better than Acceptable (4 or equivalent) based on the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric multiple comparison test and calculation of distribution-free 99% confidence limits. In a separate analysis using pooled data for September and November, all sites had an average rating no different than or better than Acceptable (4 or equivalent), with the exception of Site 6- Fibreville/Mixing Zone. These results were analyzed using least-square means estimates with adjusted Bonferroni multiple comparison tests and 99%confidence limits. Data Analysis As stated in the summary, the purpose of this analysis was two-fold and will be presented in that manner. For purposes of clarity and readability, only key Tables and Figures will be referenced at the end of the document. The output for any analysis that is not contained in this document is available upon request. Normality Test Although there were thousands of data points collected in this study, the survey data was collected using Likert items whose basis is ordinal, so tests for normality of the data were performed to ensure that the appropriate statistical analyses (parametric vs. nonparametric) were applied to the data. The tests for normality were evaluated for the lowest subgroup level that would be required for comparison testing. The lowest subgroup level was by date, site and river characteristic, for a total of 3 x 8 x 7 = 168 subgroups. Only 16 out of the 168 subgroups were considered normally distributed (Appendix A), therefore the initial comparison testing was performed using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis statistic. In order to simplify the analysis, statistical comparisons were performed to see if the data could be grouped together for Upriver(UR) and Downriver(DR) data and/or for any combination of the dates. 1 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Multiple Comparison Testing • The comparison test showed that UR is not significantly different from DR. Therefore,they were grouped together as one population. • The next test showed that the Dates were significantly different therefore the final analysis was performed by date. • The final test showed that the Sites were significantly different from each other when grouped by Date and river characteristic. The nonparametric test for multiple comparisons indicates if the sites are significantly different, but does not state specifically which sites are different from each other. Hence additional analysis using paired comparisons was performed. Paired Comparison Testing A common practice with Likert scale data is to sum the ratings from categories/questions that are similar. This not only reduces the complexity of the analysis, but also can make the data normally distributed. For that reason, river characteristic groups of Scenic Beauty(Scenic Beauty), Water Color&Clarity(Color+ Clarity), and Recreation (Wading+Swimming+ Fishing+ Boating/Canoeing/Rafting) were created and the appropriate scores were summed. Analysis was performed on these sums instead of the individual ratings. Also, a separate analysis was performed on UR June data only because 17%of that date's data was missing (almost 500 observations) due to people forgetting to score DR. • Sept and Nov Analysis By summing the Likert scores within the new groups, the data was more normally distributed. Hence, analyses were conducted using parametric procedures. o The first comparison test showed that UR was not significantly different from DR so they were grouped as one population. o The second test showed that the September and the November data were not significantly different from each other. Therefore, the dates were grouped as one population which allowed the analysis to be performed only by site and characteristic group. Based on the new population, the new'Acceptable' score was calculated as: Grouped Characteristic Summed Scale Scenic Beauty 8 =Acceptable (4 x 1 characteristic x 2 UR/DR) Water Color&Clarity 16=Acceptable (4 x 2 characteristics x 2 UR/DR) Recreation 32 =Acceptable (4 x 4 characteristics x 2 UR/DR) Figures 1-3 display the summary statistics for the different sites as well as the distribution of the summed scores based on 99%confidence intervals. Tables 1-3 show which groups are not significantly different from each other. The conclusion can be made that Site 6 is significantly different from all other sites. However, all other sites are considered acceptable or better based on the 99%confidence limits around the mean. • June Analysis The summed scores for the UR June observations failed the normality test, therefore nonparametric testing was performed. The results from the analysis indicated that the sites 2 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. were significantly different(Appendix C). Because only UR data for June was utilized in this analysis, the new 'Acceptable' score for this data is calculated below: Grouped Characteristic Summed Scale Scenic Beauty 4=Acceptable (4 x 1 characteristic x 1 UR) Water Color& Clarity 8 =Acceptable (4 x 2 characteristics x 1 UR) Recreation 16=Acceptable (4 x 4 characteristics x 1 UR) In order to evaluate which groups were significantly different from each other, 99% confidence limits were calculated around the median values by site and characteristic group. The 99% confidence intervals around the median for each site are defined in Table 4 and plotted in Figures 4-6. Tables 5-7 arrange the sites into groups that are not significantly different from each other. From these results, it can be concluded that all sites are considered acceptable or better based on the 99%confidence limits around the median. 3 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Table 1: Pooled Sept/Nov data, Sites Not Statistically Different for Characteristic Group =Scenic Beauty Means with the same letter are not significantly different, Bon Grouping Memi N Site f; 11.2404 52 8 Wells Rd By .'t 11 0010 52 3 Ferguson Br ti ,�. 10,9163 52 2 Hepco Br f. .'1 10.7356 52 1 Brooms Br �. 10.4798 52 7 Canton Rec Pk !ti r s lOZO 52 5 Thickety 02 St L' 8.3837 52 4 Clyde Br C' 6.U952 52 6 Fibreviile helix Zn *Groupings based on Tables in Appendix B. Table 2: Pooled Sept/Nov data, Sites Not Statistically Different for Characteristic Group = Water Color & Clarity Means %ith the same letter are not significantly different. Hon Grouping Mean N Site A 23.6154 52 8 Wells Rd Br A A 22.6760 52 7 Canton Rec Pk A B A 20,7721 52 3 Ferguson Br B B C 19,1404 52 2 Hepco Br B C B C 18.7788 52 1 Browns By C D C 16.7817 52 4 Clyde Br D C D C 16,4663 52 5 THckety 02 St D D 133981 52 6 Fibreville helix Zn *Groupings based on Tables in Appendix B. 4 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Table 3: Pooled Sept/Nov data, Sites Not Statistically Different for Characteristic Group = Recreation Means with the same letter are not significantly different. Hon Grouping Mean N Site A 40.596 52 8 Wells Rd Sr A B A 38311 52 7 Canton Ree Pk B A B A 38297 52 3 Ferguson Br B A B A 36,302 52 5 Tluckety 02 St B A B A 35375 52 2 Hepeo By B A B A 34.189 52 1 Brovais By B B C 30.665 52 d Clyde Br C C 23.183 52 6 Ffbreville Mix%n *Groupings based on Tables in Appendix B. Table 4: June data, Summary Statistics by Site and Characteristic Group Scenic Beauty Recreation Water Color&Clarity Acceptable =4 Acceptable=16 Acceptable =8 99% 99% 99% 99% 99% 99% Site Median LCLt UCLt Median LCLt UCLt Median LCLt UCLt 1 Brown's Bridge 6.0 5.0 6.5 17.5 15.8 19.0 11.3 10.8 12.0 2 Hepco Bridge 5.3 4.0 7.0 18.5 17.0 20.0 8.8 8.0 10.0 3 Ferguson Bridge 6.0 5.0 7.0 20.0 18.0 24.0 12.0 11.0 13.0 4 Clyde Bridge 5.0 4.0 6.0 21.4 19.0 22.0 11.0 9.0 12.0 5 Thickety 02 Station 5.0 4.0 6.0 20.0 20.0 22.0 8.0 7.0 9.5 6 Fibreville/Mixing Zone 3.0 2.0 4.0 15.0 12.0 18.0 9.0 7.3 10.0 7 Canton Recreation Park 6.0 5.0 7.0 24.0 22.0 25.0 13.5 13.0 14.0 8 Wells Road Bridge 6.0 5.0 6.0 23.5 20.0 24.0 10.0 9.0 11.0 t99% confidence interval for the median rating was obtained using nonparametric methods for order statistics. 5 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Table 5: June data, Sites Not Statistically Different for Characteristic Group = Scenic Beauty Scenic Beauty Acceptable=4 Site Median Group 1 Brown's Bridge 6.0 A 3 Ferguson Bridge 6.0 A 7 Canton Recreation Park 6.0 A 8 Wells Road Bridge 6.0 A 2 Hepco Bridge 5.3 A 4 Clyde Bridge 5.0 A 5 Thickety 02 Station 5.0 A 6 Fibreville/ Mixing Zone 3.0 B *Groupings based on Table 8 Confidence Limits. Table 6: June data, Sites Not Statistically Different for Characteristic Group = Recreation Recreation Acceptable = 16 Site Group Median 7 Canton Recreation Park A 24 8 Wells Road Bridge A B C 23.5 4 Clyde Bridge B C 21.4 3 Ferguson Bridge A B C D 20 5 Thickety 02 Station B C 20 2 Hepco Bridge C D E 18.5 1 Brown's Bridge D E 17.5 6 Fibreville/ Mixing Zone F 15 *Groupings based on Table 8 Confidence Limits. 6 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Table 7: June data, Sites Not Statistically Different for Characteristic Group = Water Color & Clarity Water Color&Clarity Acceptable=8 Site Group Median 7 Canton Recreation Park A 13.5 3 Ferguson Bridge B C 12 1 Brown's Bridge B 11.3 4 Clyde Bridge B C D E 11 8 Wells Road Bridge C D E 10 6 Fibreville/ Mixing Zone D E F 9 2 Hepco Bridge D E F 8.8 5 Thickety 02 Station D F 8 *Groupings based on Table 8 Confidence Limits. 7 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Figure 1: Pooled Sept/Nov data, Summary Statistics for Characteristic Group =Scenic Beauty 77�� Characteristic Group=Scenic Beauty(Acceptable=8) Site Least Squares Means Site Estimate Standard EtTor i Value Pr > jaj Alpha Lower Upper 1 Browns Br 10.7356 0.3053 35.17 <.0001 0.01 9.9492 11.5219 2 H ep c o Br 10.9163 0.3053 35.76 <.0001 0.01 10.1300 11.7027 3FergusonBr 11.0010 0.3053 36.04 <.0001 0.01 10.2146 11.7873 4 Clyde Br 8.3837 0.3053 27.46 <.0001 0.01 7.5973 9.1700 5 Tluckety 02 St 10.2346 0.3053 33.53 <.0001 0.01 9.4483 11.0210 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 6.0952 03053 19.97 <.0001 0.01 5.3089 6.8815 7 Canton Re Pk 10.4798 0.3053 34.33 <.0001 0.01 9.6935 11.2661 8 Wells Rd Br 11.2404 0.3053 36.82 <.0001 0.01 10.4540 12.0267 LS-Means for Site With 99%Confidenee Limits 12 10 1 0I 8 Acceptable=8 4-4 I 6 4r >VA V 'a1ff��j� �P udl u CIO r� Site 8 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Figure 2: Pooled Sept/Nov data, Summary Statistics for Characteristic Group = Water Color & Clarity Characteristic Group=Water Color&Clarity(Acceptable=16) Site Least Squares Means Site Estimate Standard Error a Value Pr . jaj Alpha Lower Upper 1 Browns Br 18.7788 0.6339 29.63 <.0001 0.01 17.1461 20.4116 2 H ep c o Br 19.1404 0.6339 30.20 <.0001 0.01 17.5076 20.7731 3 Ferguson Br 20.7721 0.6339 32.77 <.0001 0.01 19.1394 22.4049 4 Clyde Br 16.7817 0.6339 26.48 <.0001 0.01 15.1490 18.4145 5 Tluckety 02 St 16.4663 0.6339 25.98 <.0001 0.01 14.83M 18.0991 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 13.7981 0.6339 . 21.77 <.0001 0.01 12.1653 15.4308 7 Canton Re Pk 22.6760 0.6339 35.77 <.0001 0.01 21.0432 24.3087 8 Wells Rd Br 23.6154 0.6339 37.26 <.0001 0.01 21.9826 25,2481 LS-Means for Site Witl1 99%-Confidence Limits 25 T a 20 b!l (i (I W 441 6 Acceptable= ►6 � 1 15 Site 9 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Figure 3: Pooled Sept/Nov data, Summary Statistics for Characteristic Group = Recreation Characteristic Group=Recreation(Acceptable=32) Site Least Squares Means Site Estimate Standard Etror z Value Pr : jzj alpha Lower Upper 1 Browns Br 34.1894 1.4924 22.91 <.0001 0.01 30.3451 38.0337 2 Hepco Br 35.3750 1.4924 23.70 <.0001 0.01 31.5307 39.2193 3FergusonBr 38.2971 1.4924 25.66 <.0001 0.01 34.4528 42.1414 4 Clyde Br 30.6654 1.4924 20.55 <.0001 0.01 26.8211 34.5097 5 Thickety 02 8t 36.3019 1.4924 24.32 <.0001 0.01 32.4576 40.1462 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 23.1825 1.4924 15.53 <.0001 0.01 19.3382 27.0268 7 Canton Re Pk 38.3106 1.4924 25.67 <.0001 0.01 34.4663 42.1549 8 Wells Rd By 40.5962 1.4924 27.20 <.0001 0.01 36.7519 44.4404 LS-Means for Site With991/'6 Confidence Limits 4 � 40 I a) ll 35 1 bfi 3rl w a I -. �0 Site 10 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Figure 4: June data, Graph of 99% Confidence Limits on Site Median Ratings, Characteristic Group =Scenic Beauty Characteristic Group=Scenic Beauty Medians for Site-30JUN2012(UR only) With 99%Distribution-Free Confidence Limits 7.0 6.0 5.0 Acceptable=4 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 1 19 F S 6` 8 6 y �P� �iy phi ,6 rd r0k.3` PpCO� �4s0 qP�r, 0> PiS�O 01, P OPP d/. �iJ6o d��0 iq� 7 O �% 11 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Figure 5: June data, Graph of 99% Confidence Limits on Site Median Ratings, Characteristic Group =Water Color & Clarity Characteristic Group=Water Color&Clarity Medians for Site-30JUN2012(UR only) With 99%Distribution-Free Confidence Limits 15.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 7 11.0 lbl 10.0 9.0 Acceptable=8 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 6 ti �Pr CA roes Paco �4so gP�Fi c16P� y0 i Pc �d4 1'dlid�/0 �Qoa O� �O 7A P 12 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Figure 6: June data, Graph of 99% Confidence Limits on Site Median Ratings, Characteristic Group = Recreation Characteristic Group=Recreation Medians for Site-30JUN2012(UR only) With 99%Distribution-Free Confidence Limits 25.0 — 20.0 Acceptable=16 15.0 10.0 1 v S G 8 9,0 16r Cd� P k.. Aoo �4s �O6 sari �iy9 0�6�. ~i0ao 02 'PO, o0, J��N /•h ��hao duo 0 10>1 ark P 13 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Appendix A: Normality tests Test for Normality p-value Site Characteristic Date Mean SD Skewness Kurtosis (Shipiro-Wilk(W)) (W) Clarity 30-Jun-12 5.7 1.2 -1.1470 1.0080 0.8554 0.0000 Clarity 15-Sep-12 4.6 1.3 0.0724 -0.9400 0.9537 0.0361 Clarity 10-Nov-12 4.9 1.2 -0.2193 -0.7437 0.9646 0.1389 Color 30-Jun-12 5.4 1.0 -0.4798 -0.6040 0.9130 0.0010 Color 15-Sep-12 4.5 1.1 -0.2566 -0.8609 0.9518 0.0299 Color 10-Nov-12 4.8 1.1 -0.0412 -0.1002 0.9666 0.1683 Fishing 30-Jun-12 5.4 1.4 -0.7392 -0.1319 0.8959 0.0003 Fishing 15-Sep-12 4.5 1.7 -0.4638 -1.0097 0.9118 0.0007 Fishing 10-Nov-12 5.0 1.4 -0.8532 0.1694 0.9280 0.0046 RCB 30-Jun-12 4.0 1.9 -0.0922 -1.1580 0.9333 0.0060 1 Browns Br RCB 15-Sep-12 3.5 1.6 0.2059 -1.1662 0.9316 0.0042 RCB 10-Nov-12 4.7 1.8 -0.5779 -0.9446 0.9068 0.0008 Scenic Beauty 30-Jun-12 5.9 1.0 -0.5847 -0.8114 0.8548 0.0000 Scenic Beauty 15-Sep-12 5.2 1.3 -0.7833 -0.3850 0.9007 0.0003 Scenic Beauty 10-Nov-12 5.5 1.0 -0.2092 -0.9569 0.9410 0.0147 Swimming 30-Jun-12 3.7 1.9 0.0611 -1.0413 0.9332 0.0060 Swimming 15-Sep-12 3.2 1.2 0.1060 -1.0559 0.9426 0.0120 Swimming 10-Nov-12 3.8 1.9 0.0440 -1.1585 0.9438 0.0192 Wading 30-Jun-12 5.3 1.6 -0.7264 -0.4837 0.8860 0.0001 Wading 15-Sep-12 4.7 1.6 -0.6643 -0.8307 0.8781 0.0001 Wading 10-Nov-12 4.8 1.6 -0.2709 -1.4510 0.8943 0.0003 Clarity 30-Jun-12 3.9 1.4 0.0236 -0.1847 0.9623 0.0981 Clarity 15-Sep-12 4.5 1.3 -0.4797 -0.6040 0.9364 0.0066 Clarity 10-Nov-12 5.2 1.3 -0.6976 -0.1372 0.9430 0.0178 Color 30-Jun-12 4.3 1.1 0.4432 0.0674 0.9239 0.0026 Color 15-Sep-12 4.5 1.2 -0.1618 -0.4966 0.9600 0.0688 Color 10-Nov-12 5.0 1.3 -0.6339 -0.2995 0.9411 0.0148 Fishing 30-Jun-12 5.3 1.6 -0.9247 0.1710 0.8671 0.0000 Fishing 15-Sep-12 4.5 1.6 -0.4161 -0.7298 0.9418 0.0111 Fishing 10-Nov-12 5.0 1.5 -0.7325 -0.4682 0.9109 0.0011 RCB 30-Jun-12 5.2 1.8 -0.7386 -0.7179 0.8593 0.0000 2 Hepco Br RCB 15-Sep-12 4.2 2.0 -0.2679 -1.5696 0.8600 0.0000 RCB 10-Nov-12 4.8 1.6 -0.9248 -0.1418 0.8906 0.0002 Scenic Beauty 30-Jun-12 5.5 1.4 -0.6922 0.2042 0.8732 0.0001 Scenic Beauty 15-Sep-12 5.3 1.1 -0.5368 -0.7479 0.9134 0.0008 Scenic Beauty 10-Nov-12 5.6 1.1 -0.5738 -0.1772 0.9399 0.0134 Swimming 30-Jun-12 4.1 1.8 -0.2468 -0.9950 0.9305 0.0047 Swimming 15-Sep-12 3.8 1.6 0.0394 -1.1288 0.9434 0.0130 Swimming 10-Nov-12 4.1 1.8 -0.3920 -1.1421 0.9217 0.0027 Wading 30-Jun-12 3.8 1.9 -0.0490 -1.0682 0.9341 0.0065 Wading 15-Sep-12 4.4 1.6 -0.1120 -1.1786 0.9435 0.0130 Wading 10-Nov-12 4.6 1.6 -0.4033 -0.7146 0.9561 0.0613 Clarity 30-Jun-12 6.0 1.1 -0.7877 -0.3341 0.8454 0.0000 Clarity 15-Sep-12 4.9 1.3 0.0082 -0.9960 0.9435 0.0130 Clarity 10-Nov-12 5.7 1.3 -1.6838 2.4032 0.7952 0.0000 Color 30-Jun-12 5.7 1.1 -0.6638 -0.3054 0.8908 0.0002 Color 15-Sep-12 4.7 1.2 -0.1727 -0.8096 0.9373 0.0072 Color 10-Nov-12 5.6 1.3 -1.7554 2.9713 0.8039 0.0000 Fishing 30-Jun-12 5.4 1.4 -0.4926 -0.5981 0.9047 0.0005 Fishing 15-Sep-12 5.1 1.4 -0.6351 -0.6981 0.9073 0.0005 3 Ferguson Br Fishing 10-Nov-12 5.2 1.7 -1.2909 0.6297 0.8036 0.0000 RCB 30-1un-12 4.6 1.7 -0.5695 -0.1687 0.9114 0.0009 RCB 15-Sep-12 4.6 1.4 -0.5599 -0.4428 0.9295 0.0035 RCB 10-Nov-12 4.9 1.7 -0.8319 -0.4693 0.8836 0.0001 Scenic Beauty 30-Jun-12 5.4 1.3 -0.3835 -0.7144 0.8810 0.0001 Scenic Beauty 15-Sep-12 5.2 1.2 -0.4032 0.9881 0.9200 0.0015 Scenic Beauty 10-Nov-12 5.9 1.1 -1.5433 3.0282 0.8629 0.0000 Swimming 30-Jun-12 4.0 1.8 -0.3423 -0.9159 0.9250 0.0029 14 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Test for Normality p-value Site Characteristic Date Mean SD Skewness Kurtosis (Shipiro-Wilk(W)) (W) Swimming 15-Sep-12 4.2 1.2 -0.0160 -0.5585 0.9645 0.1095 Swimming 10-Nov-12 4.5 2.1 -0.4610 -1.3181 0.8730 0.0001 Wading 30-Jun-12 5.4 1.4 -0.6737 -0.2003 0.9063 0.0006 Wading 15-Sep-12 4.9 1.4 -0.4680 -0.9686 0.9047 0.0004 Wading 10-Nov-12 5.0 1.8 -0.8105 -0.5319 0.8802 0.0001 Clarity 30-Jun-12 5.2 1.5 -0.5958 -0.4843 0.9094 0.0009 Clarity 15-Sep-12 3.7 1.4 0.0461 -0.8818 0.9575 0,0533 Clarity 10-Nov-12 5.0 1.3 -1.0872 0.9774 0.8948 0.0003 Color 30-Jun-12 4.9 1.4 -0.3121 -0.6349 0.9387 0.0109 Color 15-Sep-12 3.6 1.3 -0.0748 -1.2207 0.9361 0.0064 Color 10-Nov-12 4.7 1.2 -0.9393 0.2501 0.9017 0.0005 Fishing 30-Jun-12 5.3 1.9 -1.2347 0.4710 0.7950 0.0000 Fishing 15-Sep-12 4.3 1.5 -0.1517 -0.8047 0.9576 0.0538 Fishing 10-Nov-12 4.2 1.6 -0.4500 -0.5239 0.9435 0.0186 RCB 30-Jun-12 5.1 1.7 -1.0912 0.5249 0.8559 0.0000 4 Clyde Br RCB 15-Sep-12 4.3 1.7 -0.4481 -0.9550 0.9028 0.0004 RCB 10-Nov-12 4.5 1.6 -0.9176 -0.0966 0.8907 0.0002 Scenic Beauty 30-Jun-12 4.8 1.5 -0.3352 -0.3296 0.9487 0.0257 Scenic Beauty 15-Sep-12 4.1 1.6 -0.1614 -0.8359 0.9620 0.0850 Scenic Beauty 10-Nov-12 4.2 1.3 -0.1588 -0.6539 0.9526 0.0438 Swimming 30-Jun-12 3.9 1.8 -0.0985 -0.5959 0.9010 0.0005 Swimming 15-Sep-12 2.9 1.5 0.7278 -0.4895 0.8966 0.0002 Swimming 10-Nov-12 3.5 1.5 -0.4258 -0.9754 0.9100 0.0010 Wading 30-1un-12 4.7 1.9 -0.6594 -0.5306 0.8881 0.0002 Wading 15-Sep-12 3.3 1.6 0.5590 -0.7583 0.9066 0.0005 Wading 10-Nov-12 3.7 1.6 -0.1404 -0.7562 0.9526 0.0437 Clarity 30-Jun-12 4.0 1.6 -0.0927 -0.1342 0.9532 0.2756 Clarity 15-Sep-12 3.7 1.4 0.1817 -0.8438 0.9507 0.0267 Clarity 10-Nov-12 4.7 1.3 -1.1504 1.3329 0.9003 0.0006 Color 30-Jun-12 4.0 1.2 -0.2113 1.5006 0.9183 0.0409 Color 15-Sep-12 3.7 1.2 0.1705 -0.3318 0.9760 0.3484 Color 10-Nov-12 4.6 1.2 -1.1785 1.7582 0.9100 0.0012 Fishing 30-Jun-12 6.0 1.4 -1.4836 1.4610 0.7552 0.0000 Fishing 15-Sep-12 5.2 1.5 -0.7858 -0.0708 0.9138 0.0009 Fishing 10-Nov-12 4.5 2.1 -0.4100 -1.3286 0.8873 0.0002 RCB 30-Jun-12 5.4 1.5 -1.0316 1.0935 0.8842 0.0071 5 Thickety 02 St RCB 15-Sep-12 4.9 1.6 -0.8816 -0.1234 0.8871 0.0001 RCB 10-Nov-12 4.4 1.9 -0.4959 -0.9946 0.9106 0.0011 Scenic Beauty 30-Jun-12 5.5 1.2 -0.4829 -0.6242 0.9047 0.0017 Scenic Beauty 15-Sep-12 5.0 1.4 -0.6920 -0.1412 0.9287 0.0032 Scenic Beauty 10-Nov-12 5.2 1.2 -1.3293 2.0103 0.8838 0.0001 Swimming 30-Jun-12 4.9 1.7 -0.6340 -0.2721 0.9186 0.0476 Swimming 15-Sep-12 4.5 1.8 -0.5093 -1.0732 0.8924 0.0002 Swimming 10-Nov-12 3.7 2.1 0.1127 -1.4282 0.9063 0.0008 Wading 30-Jun-12 4.7 1.8 -0.4245 -0.8346 0.9214 0.0485 Wading 15-Sep-12 4.7 1.7 -0.6997 -0.6703 0.8915 0.0001 Wading 10-Nov-12 4.3 2.1 -0.2741 -1.4741 0.8904 0.0002 Clarity 30-Jun-12 4.5 1.6 -0.0497 -0.5650 0.9277 0.0683 Clarity 15-Sep-12 3.3 1.3 0.3467 -0.3209 0.9479 0.0203 Clarity 10-Nov-12 3.7 1.3 -0.0839 -0.8713 0.9643 0.1342 Color 30-Jun-12 4.4 1.5 -0.4541 0.3708 0.9262 0.0711 Color 15-Sep-12 3.3 1.2 0.3556 -0.0747 0.9234 0.0020 Color 10-Nov-12 3.5 1.4 -0.1746 -0.9333 0.9550 0.0551 Fishing 30-Jun-12 3.8 2.1 0.0917 -1.2508 0.9163 0.0368 6 Fibreville Mix Zn Fishing 15-Sep-12 3.2 1.7 0.5117 -0.9046 0.8760 0.0000 Fishing 10-Nov-12 2.7 1.5 0.3584 -1.2315 0.8945 0.0003 RCB 30-Jun-12 4.7 1.8 -0.7064 -0.2734 0.9017 0.0171 RCB 15-Sep-12 3.5 1.5 0.3538 -0.9245 0.9333 0.0049 RCB 10-Nov-12 3.2 1.6 0.2023 -1.1132 0.9252 0.0037 Scenic Beauty 30-Jun-12 3.2 1.6 0.6974 0.0631 0.9037 0.0014 Scenic Beauty 15-Sep-12 3.3 1.5 0.3422 -0.5173 0.9490 0.0226 15 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Test for Normality p-value Site Characteristic Date Mean SD Skewness Kurtosis (Shipiro-Wilk(W)) (W) Scenic Beauty 10-Nov-12 2.8 1.2 0.0969 -1.1562 0.9465 0.0246 Swimming 30-Jun-12 3.0 1.7 0.7066 -0.4533 0.9046 0.0198 Swimming 15-Sep-12 2.8 1.3 0.7775 -0.4195 0.8794 0.0001 Swimming 10-Nov-12 2.3 1.3 0.6022 -0.8400 0.8690 0.0001 Wading 30-1un-12 3.6 1.9 0.2538 -1.1760 0.9215 0.0487 Wading 15-Sep-12 2.8 1.4 1.1823 0.6952 0.8511 0.0000 Wading 10-Nov-12 2.6 1.6 0.5352 -1.2006 0.8526 0.0000 Clarity 30-Jun-12 6.6 0.7 -1.5345 1.1131 0.6433 0.0000 Clarity 15-Sep-12 6.0 0.8 -1.0193 0.8728 0.8826 0.0001 Clarity 10-Nov-12 5.6 1.0 -1.7527 4.0590 0.8417 0.0000 Color 30-Jun-12 6.3 0.9 -1.1696 0.4467 0.7603 0.0000 Color 15-Sep-12 5.8 1.0 -1.3522 2.3000 0.8726 0.0000 Color 10-Nov-12 5.3 1.2 -1.3838 2.3185 0.8717 0.0001 Fishing 30-Jun-12 6.0 1.0 -0.6591 -0.7281 0.8549 0.0018 Fishing 15-Sep-12 4.9 1.5 -0.5377 -0.8296 0.9212 0.0017 Fishing 10-Nov-12 4.8 1.7 -1.1224 0.4242 0.8652 0.0000 RCB 30-Jun-12 5.8 1.2 -0.4936 -1.3266 0.8250 0.0005 7 Canton Rec Pk RCB 15-Sep-12 4.7 1.7 -0.5617 -0.7437 0.9088 0.0006 RCB 10-Nov-12 4.7 1.8 -1.0136 -0.0800 0.8540 0.0000 Scenic Beauty 30-Jun-12 5.9 1.0 -0.5346 -0.9401 0.8536 0.0000 Scenic Beauty 15-Sep-12 5.5 1.1 -0.7187 0.3395 0.9081 0.0005 Scenic Beauty 10-Nov-12 5.0 1.1 -0.5396 0.6921 0.9610 0.0976 Swimming 30-Jun-12 5.2 1.9 -0.7625 -0.6661 0.8623 0.0025 Swimming 15-Sep-12 4.6 1.6 -0.3862 -0.6084 0.9403 0.0096 Swimming 10-Nov-12 4.1 1.9 -0.3369 -1.3044 0.9093 0.0010 Wading 30-1un-12 6.1 1.1 -0.8842 -0.4649 0.7973 0.0002 Wading 15-Sep-12 5.7 1.3 -1.6840 2.6268 0.8005 0.0000 Wading 10-Nov-12 4.8 1.6 -0.6883 -0.3955 0.9289 0.0050 Clarity 30-Jun-12 5.8 1.1 -0.5122 -0.8088 0.8781 0.0001 Clarity 15-Sep-12 6.0 0.8 -0.7459 -0.5528 0.8660 0.0000 Clarity 10-Nov-12 6.3 1.0 -2.4906 5.8237 0.6388 0.0000 Color 30-Jun-12 5.5 1.2 -0.4554 -0.7789 0.9008 0.0004 Color 15-Sep-12 5.4 1.0 -0.4053 -0.4004 0.9564 0.0478 Color 10-Nov-12 6.0 1.3 -2.5091 6.1070 0.6590 0.0000 Fishing 30-Jun-12 5.8 1.2 -1.4164 2.9810 0.8403 0.0000 Fishing 15-Sep-12 5.5 0.9 -0.7157 -0.0523 0.9152 0.0010 Fishing 10-Nov-12 5.0 1.7 -0.9752 -0.0962 0.8739 0.0001 RCB 30-Jun-12 5.8 1.1 -0.7782 -0.2278 0.8618 0.0000 8 Wells Rd Br RCB 15-Sep-12 5.6 1.2 -1.6023 2.9495 0.8303 0.0000 RCB 10-Nov-12 5.3 1.7 -1.2406 0.4471 0.8224 0.0000 Scenic Beauty 30-Jun-12 5.9 0.9 -0.7562 0.4994 0.8811 0.0001 Scenic Beauty 15-Sep-12 5.7 0.9 -0.4185 -0.9480 0.9160 0.0011 Scenic Beauty 10-Nov-12 5.6 1.2 -1.3202 1.1821 0.8524 0.0000 Swimming 30-Jun-12 5.2 1.7 -1.0623 0.2933 0.8548 0.0000 Swimming 15-Sep-12 4.9 1.5 -0.6032 -0.5507 0.9260 0.0025 Swimming 10-Nov-12 4.7 2.0 -0.5595 -1.1218 0.8814 0.0001 Wading 30-Jun-12 5.3 1.6 -0.6463 -0.3883 0.8964 0.0003 Wading 15-Sep-12 4.8 1.5 -0.5979 -0.4939 0.9379 0.0076 Wading 10-Nov-12 4.8 2.0 -0.6617 -0.9659 0.8718 0.0001 16 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Appendix B: Bonferroni Pairwise Comparison Test Statistics for Pooled Sept/Nov Data Characteristic Group = Scenic Beauty Differences of Site Least Squares Means Adjustment far Multiple Comparisons:Bonferroni Standard Adj Sitel Site2 Estimate Error z Value Pr> 171 Adj P Alpha Lower Upper Lower 1 Browns Br 2 Hepco Br -0.1808 0.4317 -0.42 0.6754 1 0.01 -1.2928 0.9313 -1.722 1 Browns Br 3 Ferguson Br -0.2654 0.4317 -0.61 0.5387 1 0.01 -1.3774 0.8467 -1.8066 1 Browns Br 4 Clyde Br 2.3519 0.4317 5.45 <.0001 <:.0001 0.01 1.2399 3.4641 0.8107 1 Browns Br 5 Thickety 02 St 0.501 0.4317 1.16 0.2459 1 0.01 -0.6111 1.613 -1.0403 1 Browns Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 4.6404 0.4317 10.75 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 3.5283 5.7524 3.0992 1 Browns Br 7 Canton Rec Pk 0.25581 0.4317 0.59 0.5536 1 0.01 -0.8563 1.3678 -1.2854 1 Browns Br 8 Wells Rd Br -0.5048 0.4317 -1.17 0.2423 1 0.01 -1.6169 0.6072 -2.046 2 Hepco Br 3 Ferguson Br -0.08462 0.4317 -0.2 0.8446 1 0.01 -1.19671 1.0274 -1.6258 2 Hepco Br 4 Clyde Br 2.5327 0.4317 5.57 <0001 <.0001 0.01 1.4206 3.6447 0.9915 2 Hepco Br 5 Thickety 02 St 0.6817 0.4317 1.58 0.1143 1 0.01 -0.4303 1.7938 -0.8595 2 Hepco Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 4.8212 0.4317 11.17 <.0001 <,0001 0.01 3.7091 5.9332 3.2799 2 Hepco Br 7 Canton Rec Pk 0.4365 0.4317 1.01 0.3119 1 0.01 -0.6755 1.5436 -1.1047 2 Hepco Br 3 Wells Rd Br -0.324 0.4317 -0.75 0.4529 1 0.01 -1.4361 0.788 -1.8653 3 Ferguson Br 4 Clyde Br 2.6173 0.4317 6.06 <.0001 <:.0001 0.01 1.5053 3.7294 1.0761 3 Ferguson Br 5 Thickety 02 St 0.7663 0.4317 1.78 0.0759 1 0.01 -0.3457 1.8784 -0.7749 3 Ferguson Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 4.9058 0.43171 11.36 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 3.7937 6.0178 3.3646 3 Ferguson Br 7 Canton Rec Pk 0.5212 0.4317 1.21 0.22741 1 0.01 -0.5909 1.6332 -1.0201 3 Ferguson Br 9 Wells Rd Br -0.2394 0.4317 -0.55 0.5792 1 0.01 -1.3515 0.8726 -1.7806 4 Clyde Br 5 Thickety 02 St -1.851 0.4317 -4.29 <.0001 0.0005 0.01 -2.963 -0.7389 -3.3922 4 Clyde Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 2.2885 0.4317 5.3 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 1.1764 3.4005 0.7472 4 Clyde Br 7 Canton Rec Pk -2.0962 0.4317 -4.86 <:.0001 <.0001 0.01 -3.2082 -0.9841 -3.6374 4 Clyde Br 3 Wells Rd Br -2.8567 0.4317 -6.62 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 -3.9688 -1.7447 -4.3979 5 Thickety 02 St 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 4.1394 0.4317 9.59 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 3.0274 5.2515 2.5982 5 Thickety 02 St 7 Canton Rec Pk -0.2452 0.4317 -0.57 0.5701 1 0.01 -1.3572 0.8669 -1.7864 5 Thickety 02 St 8 Wells Rd Br -1.0058 0.4317 -2.33 0.0193 0.5551 0.01 -2.1178 0.1063 -2.547 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 17 Canton Rec Pk 1 -4.3846 0.4317 -10.16 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 -5.4967 -3.2726 -5.9258 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 8 Wells Rd Br -5.1452 0.4317 -11.92 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 -6.2572 -4.0331 -6.6364 7 Canton Rec Pk 18 Wells Rd Br -0.76061 0.4317 -1.76 0.0781 1 0.01 -1.8726 0.3515 -2.3013 17 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Characteristic Group = Water Color & Clarity Differences of Site Least Squares Means Adjustment for Multiple Comparisons:Bonferroni Standard Adj Site1 Site2 Estimate Error zvalue Pr>lzI AdjP Alpha Lower Upper Lower 1 Browns Br 2 Hepco Br -0.3615 0.8964 -0.4 0.6867 1 0.01 -2.6706 1.9475 -3.5617 1 Browns Br 3 Ferguson Br -1.9933 0.8964 -2.22 0.0262 0.733 0.01 -4.3023 0.3158 -5.1934 1 Browns Br 4 Clyde Br 1.9971 0.8964 2.23 0.0259 0.7249 0.01 -0.3119 4.3062 -1.203 1 Browns Br 5 Thickety 02 St 2.3125 0.8964 2.581 0.0099 0.27691 0.01 0.00346 4.6215 -0.8876 1 Browns Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 4.9808 0.8964 5.56 <.0001 <:.0001 0.01 2.6717 7.2898 1.7806 1 Browns Br 7 Canton Rec Pk -3.8971 0.8964 -4.35 <0001 0.0004 0.01 -6.2062 -1.5881 -7.0973 1 Browns Br 8 Wells Rd Br -4.8365 0.8964 -5.4 <.0001 <=.0001 0.01 -7.1456 -2.5275 -8.0367 2 Hepco Br 3 Ferguson Br -1.6317 0.8964 -1.82 0.0687 1 0.01 -3.9408 0.6773 -4.8319 2 Hepco Br 4 Clyde Br 2.3587 0.8964 2.63 0.0085 0.2383 0.01 0.04961 4.6677 -0.8415 2 Hepco Br 5 Thickety 02 St 2.674 0.8964 2.93 0.0029 0.0799 0.01 0.365 4.9831 -0.5261 2 Hepco Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 5.3423 0.8964 5.96 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 3.0333 7.6513 2.1422 2 Hepco Br 7 Canton Rec Pk -3.5356 0.8964 -3.94 <.0001 0.0022 0.01 -5.8446 -1.2265 -6.7357 2 Hepco Br 8 Wells Rd Br -4.475 0.8964 -4.99 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 -6.784 -2.166 -7.6751 3 Ferguson Br 4 Clyde Br 3.9904 0.8964 4.45 <.0001 0.0002 0.01 1.6813 6.2994 0.7902 3 Ferguson Br 5 Thickety 02 St 4.3058 0.8964 4.8 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 1.9967 6.6148 1.1056 3 Ferguson Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 6.974 0.8964 7.78 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 4.665 9.2831 3.7739 3 Ferguson Br 7 Canton Rec Pk -1.9038 0.8964 -2.12 0.0337 0.9432 0.01 -4.2129 0.4052 -5.104 3 Ferguson Br 8 Wells Rd Br -2.8433 0.8964 -3.17 0.0015 0.0424 0.01 -5.1523 -0.5342 -6.0434 4 Clyde Br 5 Thickety 02 St 0.3154 0.8964 0.35 0.725 1 0.01 -1.9937 2.6244 -2.8848 4 Clyde Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 2.9337 0.8964 3.33 0.0009 0.0245 0.01 0.6746 5.2927 -0.2165 4 Clyde Br 7 Canton Rec Pk -5.8942 0.8964 -6.58 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 -8.2033 -3.5352 -9.0944 4 Clyde Br 8 Wells Rd Br -6.8337 0.8964 -7.62 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 -9.1427 -4.5246 -10.0338 5Thickety 02 St 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 2.6683 0.8964 2.98 0.0029 0.0816 0.01 0.3592 4.9773 -0.5319 5 Thickety 02 St 7 Canton Rec Pk -6.2096 0.8964 -6.93 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 -8.5187 -3.9006 -9.4098 5 Thickety 02 St 8 Wells Rd Br -7.149 0.3964 -7.98 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 -9.4531 -4.84 -10.3492 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 7 Canton Rec Pk -8.8779 0.8964 -9.9 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 -11.1869 -6.5688 -12.078 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 8 Wells Rd Br -9.8173 0.8964 -10.95 <:.0001 <:.0001 0.01 -12.1263 -7.5083 -13.0174 7 Canton Rec Pk 8 Wells Rd Br -0.9394 0.8964 -1.05 0.2947 1 0.01 -3.2485 1.3696 -4.1396 18 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Characteristic Group = Recreation Differences of Site Least Squares Means Adjustment for Multiple Comparisons:Bonferroni Standard Adj Site1 Site2 Estimate Error z Value Pr> lzl Adj P Alpha Lower Upper Lower 1 Browns Br 2 Hepco Br -1.1856 2.1106 -0.56 0.5743 1 0.01 -6.6222 4.2511 -8.7203 1 Browns Br 3 Ferguson Br -4.1077 2.1106 -1.95 0.0516 1 0.01 -9.5443 1.3289 -11.6424 1 Browns Br 4 Clyde Br 3.524 2.1106 1.67 0.095 1 0.01 -1.9126 8.9607 -4.0107 1 Browns Br 5 Thickety 02 St -2.1125 2.1106 -1 0.3169 11 0.01 -7.54911 3.3241 -9.6472 1 Browns Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 11.0069 2.1106 5.21 <.0001 <:.0001 0.01 5.57031 16.4436 3.4722 1 Browns Br 7 Canton Rec Pk -4.1212 2.1106 -1.95 0.0509 1 0.01 -9.5578 1.3155 -11.6559 1 Browns Br 8 Wells Rd Br -6.4067 2.1106 -3.04 0.0024 0.0672 0.01 -11.8434 -0.9701 -13.9414 2 Hepco Br 3 Ferguson Br -2.9221 2.1106 -1.38 0.1662 1 0.01 -8.3587 2.5145 -10.4563 2 Hepco Br 4 Clyde Br 4.7096 2.1106 2.23 0.02571 0.7194 0.01 -0.727 10.1462 -2.8251 2 Hepco Br 5 Thickety 02 St -0.9269 2.1106 -0.44 0.6605 1 0.01 -6.3636 4.5097 -8.4616 2 Hepco Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 12.1925 2.1106 5.78 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 6.75591 17.6291 4.6578 2 Hepco Br 7 Canton Rec Pk -2.9356 2.1106 -1.39 0.1643 1 0.01 -8.3722 2.5011 -10.4703 2 Hepco Br 8 Wells Rd Br -5.2212 2.1106 -2.47 0.0134 0.3744 0.01 -10.6578 0.2155 -12.7559 3 Ferguson Br 4 Clyde Br 7.6317 2.1106 3.62 0.0003 0.0084 0.01 2.1951 13.0684 0.09702 3 Ferguson Br 5 Thickety 02 St 1.9952 2.1106 0.95 0.3445 1 0.01 -3.4414 7.4318 -5.5395 3 Ferguson Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 15.1146 2.1106 7.16 •'.0001 <.0001 0.01 9.678 20.5512 7.5799 3 Ferguson Br 7 Canton Rec Pk -0.01346 2.1106 -0.01 0.9949 1 0.01 -5.4501 5.4232 -7.5482 3 Ferguson Br 8 Wells Rd Br -2.299 2.1106 -1.09 0.276 1 0.01 -7.7357 3.1376 -9.8337 4 Clyde Br 5 Thickety 02 St -5.6365 2.1106 -2.67 0.0076 0.212 0.01 -11.0732 -0.1999 -13.1712 4 Clyde Br 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 7.4829 2.1106 3.55 0.0004 0.011 0.01 2.0463 12,9195 -0.05182 4 Clyde Br 7 Canton Rec Pk -7.6452 2.1106 -3.62 0.0003 0.0082 0.01 -13.0818 -2.2086 -15.1799 4 Clyde Br 8 Wells Rd Br -9.9308 2.1106 -4.71 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 -15.3674 -4.4941 -17.4655 5 Thickety 02 St 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 13.1194 2.1106 6.22 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 7.6823 18.5561 5.5847 5 Thickety 02 St 7 Canton Rec Pk -2.0087 2.1106 -0.95 0.3413 1 0.01 -7.4453 3.428 -9.5434 5 Thickety 02St 8 Wells Rd Br -4.2942 2.1106 -2.03 0.0419 1 0.01 -9.7309 1.1424 -11.8289 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 7 Canton Rec Pk -15.1281 2.1106 -7.17 <.0001 <.0001 0.01 -20.5647 -9.6914 -22.6628 6 Fibreville Mix Zn 8 Wells Rd Br -17.4137 2.1106 -3.25 <.0001 <00011 0.01 -22.8503 -11.977 -24.9484 7 Canton Rec Pk 8 Wells Rd Br -2.2856 2.1106 -1.081 0.27891 1 0.01 -7.72221 3.1511 -9.8203 19 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Appendix C: Kruskal-Wallis Multiple Comparison Test Statistics for June Data Characteristic Group = Scenic Beauty Nonparatnetric Ore-WayAL OVA The NPARIWAY Procedure chargroup=Beauty Median Scores(Number of Points AboTehfedian)for Variable SUM-of Rating Classified by Variable Site Sum of Expected Std Der Mean Site N Scores Under H0 Under HO Score I Browns Br 26 18.000000 12.937198 2.374333 0.692305 2 Hepco Br 25 12333333 12.439614 2.334649 0.493333 3 Ferguson Br 26 14.000000 12.937198 2.374333 0.535462 4 Clyde Br 26 9.666667 12.937198 2374333 0.371795 5 Thickety02 St 26 11.000000 12.937198 2374333 0.423077 6 Fibreville'14ix Zh 26 4.000000 12.937198 2.374333 0.153846 7 Canton Rec Pk 26 19.000000 12.937198 2374333 0.692309 S Wells Rd Br 26 16.000000 12.937198 2.374333 0.615385 Average scores,,xere used for ties Median Onet'ljayAnalysis Chi-Square 24.2132 DF 7 Pr>Chi-Square 0.0010 Generated by the SAS System('SASApp,X64 SOSR2)on January 21,2013 at 11:57.46 PIi Characteristic Group =Water Color& Clarity Nonparametric Ore-Way ANT OVA The NPARIWAY Procedure chargroup=Water Median Scores(Number of Points Above Median)for Variable SGM_of_Rating Classified by Variable Site Sum of Expected Std Uer Mean Site N Scores UnderHO UnderHO Score 1 Browns Br 52 36.571429 26.0 3.263526 0.703297 2 Hepco Br 52 13.714286 26.0 3.263526 0.263736 3 Ferguson Br 52 36.957143 26.0 3.263526 0.709791 4 CISde Br 52 28.285714 26.0 3.263526 0.543936 5 Thick-ety02 St 52 7.429571 26.0 3.263526 0.142957 6 Fibreville Nix 2h 52 14.857143 26.0 3.263526 0.285714 7 Canton Rec Pk 52 45.142857 26.0 3.263526 0.565132 S Wells Rd Br 52 25.142857 26.0 3.263526 0.493516 Average scores were used for ties. Median One-Way Analysis Chi-Square 1003967 DF 7 Pr>Chi-Square <0001 Generated by the SAS System CSASApp,X64_SOSR2)on January21,2013 at 11:57.46 PMd 20 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Characteristic Group = Recreation Nonparametric One-Way A�NIOVA The NPAR 1 W AY Procedure chargroup=Rec Median Scores(Number of Points Above Median)for Variable SUM-of Rating Classified by Variable Site Sum of Expected Rd Dev hfean Site N Scores UnderHO UnderHO Score 1 Bromis Br 104 26.117647 52.0 4.630068 0.251131 2.Hepco Br 104 44.235294 52.0 4.630068 0.425339 3 Ferguson Br 104 54.117647 52.0 4.630068 0.520362 4 Clyde Br 104 60.000000 52.0 4.630068 0.576923 5 Thick-ety02 St 104 63.294118 52.0 4.630068 0.60S597 6 Fibre`Ylle IN& Zn 104 27.058824 52.0 4.630068 0.260191 7 Canton Rec Pk 104 75.058824 52.0 4.630068 0.721719 S Wells Rd Br 104 66.117647 52.0 4.630068 0.635747 Average scores-were used for ties. Median One-NY,ayAnalysis Chi-Square 93.0328 DF 7 Pr>Chi-Square C0001 Generated by the SAS System(SAS. ,X64_S08R2)on January 21,2013 at 11:57:46 Pivi 21 Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. ABOUT PINNACLE SOLUTIONS Formed in 1996 by founder and President DJ Penix, Pinnacle Solutions' mission is to empower clients to analyze and interpret the "mountain" of data that they collect and utilize to run their department, division, or company. Pinnacle Solutions adopted the SAS system, one of the most prominent analytic and reporting tools since the late 1970s, as the primary programming language for development of custom analytic applications. Pinnacle Solutions' focus from day one has been the life sciences market. The earliest projects delivered by the company's consultants involved development of SAS-based applications for clinical trials data analysis and reporting at Eli Lilly and Company. Pinnacle Solutions also entered the manufacturing sector, creating a custom SAS Internet-based SPC application for manufacturing process improvement at medical device company Roche Diagnostics. As the company completed projects, clients requested additional services. Pinnacle Solutions' offerings gradually expanded to include all phases of the systems development life cycle (SDLC). In an effort to provide fully documented and validated software, the company created service teams in technical writing and validation & testing. Veteran statisticians were added to the Pinnacle Solutions team to help clients interpret data and to ensure that SAS applications incorporated sound analysis techniques. In 2001, Pinnacle Solutions' launched the,Solutions Development Center as a complete outsourced SAS application development resource for the United States marketplace. In 2004, the Solutions Development Center expanded to encompass project management services as well as to create graphical user interfaces for web and stand-alone products. Focused on providing innovative solutions that integrate with SAS, Pinnacle Solutions introduced their Backpack Solution Kit in 2010. Comprised of a tools such as Pinnacle Compass, Binoculars, Shelter, and First Aid Kit,the Backpack Solution Kit has as set of must have tools that help customers with their data needs. Today, Pinnacle Solutions is a SAS Alliance Partner, a Futrix business partner and continues to expand their offering by now selling SAS software directly to its clients. Pinnacle Solutions has been the number one SAS reseller in the Midwest since 2007 and has had the highest sales volume of any reseller in the United States since 2009. From a concept to a complete implementation, Pinnacle Solutions' full service offering includes everything a company needs to build a customizable Business Intelligence and Analytic solution from scratch. The company's corporate offices and Solutions Development Center are located in downtown Indianapolis. Pinnacle Solutions has clients in numerous industries such as Biotechnology, Clinical Research, Communications, Education, Financial, Government, Healthcare, Insurance, Manufacturing, Medical Devices, Pharmaceutical, and Retail, Pinnacle Solutions' services empower companies to rise to a higher level of clarity,thus increasing work output and profitability. 426 East New York Street Indianapolis, IN 46202 317.423.9143 MIA LYST mia.lyst @psiconsultants.com CAREER SUMMARY o A results-driven technical leader with over 15 years of experience in applied statistics, data management and data analysis, application development and project leadership. o A self-motivated individual contributor who has successfully implemented several innovative solutions to advance process understanding, to enable process improvements, and to support root-cause investigations thereby maximizing operational excellence. o An effective mentor who is passionate about improving the technical skills of others across the organization empowering them to perform their jobs better. PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Indianapolis, IN Nov 2012 - Present Director, Development and Business Analytics Manage the Development and Statistical groups. Lead and direct the application of advanced analytical processes, quantitative methodologies, and visualization techniques to complex business problems across multiple industry issues or functional domains. Roche Diagnostics Indianapolis, IN 2007— 2012 Lead cross-functional projects that focus on process or product improvements and efficiencies for Diabetes Care strip manufacturing and product quality. Propose and apply statistical methodologies to enable multi-factorial understanding of complex processes. Provide and implement innovative business intelligence systems for data integration, data analysis and data management. Principal Scientist—Product Development& Product Performance 2009 - Present o Implemented multivariate analysis, Design of Experiments and EVOP designs to identify critical parameters in the manufacturing process that can be used to adjust product performance. o Enabled continuous monitoring of the strip production process as well as immediate access to summarized process and performance data for product performance investigations. o Collaborated with cross-functional project teams to incorporate new data sources into a business data warehouse(s) and utilize business intelligence tools to develop prototypes, reports and visualizations that allow data to be analyzed and acted upon. o Mentored and guided individuals in the use of data extraction and statistical analysis tools and techniques. o Designed and proposed a new calibration process being developed for the next generation of bGM systems which implements Quality by Design principles in the strip manufacturing process. o Increased yields for No Code bGM systems by as much as 5% prior to product launch. Process Scientist—Product Development 2007-2009 o Implemented systems that have realized an estimated YTD cost savings of$500K and an estimated yearly cost savings of$400K. o Reduced cycle time of a calibration process by an average of 2-3 days per cycle. o Ensured product and/or process improvements were validated and met specifications and requirements according to Roche Quality System procedures. MIA LYST Page 3 o Performed project management tasks such as budget planning, resource allocation, scheduling and working with internal and external vendors. Lyst Consulting, LLC Indianapolis, IN 2005 - 2007 Owner/SAS and Statistical Consultant o Started a consulting company which focused on providing statistical and data analysis support to pharmaceutical and medical device companies. o Developed and verified statistical applications used for data analysis and report generation. Pinnacle Solutions, Inc. Indianapolis, IN 2001 - 2004 Director of Programming Services/Project Leader o Helped define the mission and vision of the company. o Involved in the hiring process of potential employees and consultants and defined performance metrics of employees. o Led the development of statistical applications used to analyze and generate reports on clinical and research data. Roche Diagnostics Indianapolis, IN 1998 - 2001 Quality Engineer and Process Analyst o Performed statistical analysis (e.g. Design of Experiments, SPC, Gage R&R, ANOVA analysis, and hypothesis testing) that allowed manufacturing engineers and QA management to understand the variability of the process and the impact of changes made to the process. o Implemented new statistical procedures to improve strip manufacturing process control. o Developed a web-based intranet application that provided continuous monitoring and quality control feedback of the manufacturing process Boehringer Mannheim Indianapolis, IN 1996 - 1998 Applied Mathematician and Statistician EDUCATION Purdue University at IUPUI Indianapolis, IN 1991 - 1994 M.S. in Applied Statistics St. Mary's College Notre Dame, IN 1987 - 1991 B.S. in Mathematics, Minor in Business COMPUTER EXPERIENCE Programming languages: SAS, SQL, HTML, XML Tools: SAS/EG, SAS/BI Server and Client Tools, SAS Base/Foundation, JMP, SimcaP+, Stat-Ease, Microsoft Office, MS Project, Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, Rational Requisite Pro Suite MIA LYST Page 3 RECOGNITIONS Healthcare Businesswomen's Association Committee member (2013) —Volunteer as a Corporate Relations committee member for the HBA Indiana chapter. WLI Community Impact Committee member (2012) —Selected to be a Committee member of the Roche Women's Leadership Initiative. ASPIRE Mentee (2011-2012) — Selected to participate in Roche's leadership training program. 426 East New York Street Indianapolis, IN 46202 33.7-423-9143 x8o81 MONICA GEHLHAUSEN monica.gehlhausen@psiconsultant5.com SKILLS • SAS (Enterprise Guide, Enterprise Miner, Management Console, Information Map Studio,Web Report Studio, Portal, Sentiment Analysis Studio), SAS Certified Predictive Modeler • Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher) • Strong Written/Verbal Communication • Six Sigma Black Belt Trained 0 Leadership • Strong Work Ethic • Minitab • Teaching/Training 0 Meticulous • Project Management • Client Relations STATISTICAL EXPERIENCE Pinnacle Solutions, Inc., Indianapolis, IN June 2o12—Present Data Scientist Create analyses that have impacts on business through optimization, segmentation, prediction analysis, and simulations. Interpret the results and empower the client to understand and use the information gleaned. • Cleanse and prepare data,create necessary variables, analyze through various modeling techniques. • Transfer knowledge of projects'architecture and purpose to clients so that they may continue to use the SAS software themselves • Segmentation analysis of client's customer base to create distinct customer categories and created predictive model to capture the target customer. FinTek Consulting, Atlanta,GA Feb 2012—Present Analyst and Trainer Analyze a multitude of different work systems based on Six Sigma project goals. • Reduced heat rate loss through system optimization,simulated the financial savings, and will be implementing the project in at least two of the power plants for Ohio Valley Electric Corporation. • Optimized inventory by analyzing shipments through container mix,frequency, and inventory turn. • Teach and train future Six Sigma Green Belts. University of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN Fall Semester 2012 Adjunct Faculty Teaching Introduction to Statistics to non-math majors. Responsible for all instruction, homework&tests, grading, and office hours. OTHER WORK EXPERIENCE Five Star Dance Studios, Indianapolis, IN March 2004—May 2012 Manager,Trainer Drove 53%revenue growth, achieving$1.21VII in annual sales,while greatly increasing profitability.Act as both chief administrator of growing 5-15 person staff and principal liaison to too+students/client families at every stage of relationship with studio;drive innovative sales,training,and customer relations. • Eliminated account delinquency issues affecting approximately 50%of total account base by streamlining payment systems and processes, bringing current all active students and many past-due accounts. • Eliminated nearly s5oK in annual refunds caused by customer dissatisfaction by retraining office and teaching staff in professional procedures and personalized sales presentation methods.Also initiated regular progress checks and 1 on-1 attention for students. • Spearheaded move to quantitative, metric-based performance evaluations permitting merit-based bonuses. EDUCATION Master of Science in Statistics, Miami University, Oxford, OH, GPA 3.zo, December 2o11 Graduate Project with Eli Lilly& Company, Indianapolis, IN • Analyzed different methods to discover a more robust and less bias method of calculating the minimum significant ratio(MSR)for different biological assays. • Streamlined SAS coding used for calculations. • Modified existing simulations to check the robustness and bias of several different methods to find the optimal method. Bachelor of Science in Mathematics, University of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN,magna cum laude, GPA 3.791, May zoos EXHIBIT optimizing 1�Cjtit�,eTer ] resources ( water, air, earth MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE EDUCATION: M.S.,Environmental &Water Resources Engineering,Vanderbilt University,Nashville,Tennessee, 1979 B.S.,Nuclear Engineering,University of Tennessee, Knoxville,Tennessee, 1972 PROFESSIONAL LICENSES: Professional Engineer: Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina,Ohio,Oklahoma,Oregon,Pennsylvania,Rhode Island,South Carolina,Tennessee,Texas,Virginia,West Virginia,Wisconsin PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS AND AFFILIATIONS: American Nuclear Society, Member American Academy of Environmental Engineers Harpeth River Watershed Association, Secretary of Board of Directors and Technical Advisor National Council for Air and Stream Improvement(NCASI),Member Treated Wood Council, Life Cycle Assessment Committee Water Environment Federation,Member OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACHIEVEMENTS AND AWARDS: Board Certified Environmental Engineer(BCEE)-American Academy of Environmental Engineers Roy F. Weston Environmental Technical Award, Engineering Division at TAPPI Co-holder U.S. Patent for Hazardous Waste Land Treatment of Petroleum Sludges Co-inventor U.S. Patent for In-Situ Biostimulation of Groundwater and Vadose Zone Double-Bonded Carbon Atoms Honor Award for Diffuser Design from Consulting Engineers Council of Illinois CURRENT PROFESSIONAL INVOLVEMENT: 1992-present,AquAeTer,President Mr.Corn provides technical direction and management of projects involving groundwater,surface water resources, water quality/environmental management(including modeling),contaminant transport,fate and effects analyses,toxicity identification/reduction evaluations,bioassays,bioconcentration/bioaccumulation studies and modeling,geomorphologic analysis, environmental permitting, air, CERCLA, SPCC, SWPP, and evaluations, NPDES, RCRA, TSCA, and hazardous waste management. Mr.Corn is a Board Certified Environmental Engineer(BCEE)working in the areas of solid, hazardous and nuclear waste management, permitting, disposal and remediation. He has over 30 years of experience in environmental engineering, including the design and construction oversight of the remediation of contaminated soils and other complex earth projects. He is a co-holder of a U.S. Patent for a hazardous waste land treatment unit for petroleum sludges and co-inventor of a U.S.Patent for in-situ biostimulation of double-bonded carbon atoms in vadose zone soils and groundwater. Mr. Corn is also an adjunct instructor of environmental engineering at Vanderbilt University where he teaches classes on environmental sampling,modeling,permitting and regulatory affairs for air,water quality,wastewater, and solid hazardous and nuclear waste. PRIOR PROFESSIONAL INVOLVEMENT: 1985-1992 The ADVENT Group,Inc.,Brentwood,Tennessee, Principal/Vice-President 1980-1985 AWARE, Inc., SE,Nashville,Tennessee,Senior Project Engineer/Project Manager 1975-1980 Law Engineering Testing Co.,Marietta,Georgia,Water Resources Engineer/Project Manager 1973-1975 Vanderbilt University,Nashville,Tennessee,Research Assistant AREAS OF EXPERTISE: Water Quality Monitoring/Modeling CO2 Emissions' Estimates Environmental Remediation Contaminant Transport Fate&Effects Air Monitoring&Modeling Total Maximum Daily Loads Bathymetric Surveys Bench-scale Treatability Studies Human Health Risk Assessments Ecological Risk Assessments Sediment Mapping Hazardous Waste Management Expert Report/Expert Testimony Environmental Permitting Wetlands Delineations KEY CLIENTS AND INDUSTRIES: Industrial Law Firms Neal &Harwell Iron and Steel Charles Doerflinger Roberts& Stevenson Organic/Inorganic Chemicals Chisenhll,Nestrud&Julian Wildman, Harrold,Allen&Dixon Pulp and Paper Hill Wallack Refinery/Petrochemicals Lewis,King,Krieg&Waldrop Government/Municipal Wood Treatment Lightfoot,Franklin&White USEPA, DOE,DOD,ORNL Maynard Cooper&Gale USACE optimizing AeTer resources I water, air, earth. JOHN MICHAEL CORN, P.E. EDUCATION: B.S.Chemical Engineering,University of Tennessee,Knoxville,Tennessee,2001 PROFESSIONAL LICENSES AND CERTIFICATIONS: Professional Engineer,Tennessee Certified AHERA Inspector for Asbestos PROFESSIONAL TRAINING: 40-Hour Training for Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response(HAZWOPER) CURRENT PROFESSIONAL INVOLVEMENT: 2003-present,AquAeTer,Project Engineer Mr. Corn has 10 years of experience in environmental engineering. His current projects include water quality studies and modeling,air emissions calculations and modeling, environmental litigation support, dispersion studies, groundwater investigation, geomorphologic analysis, wastewater treatment selection, bioaccumulation, and environmental site assessments. He has been involved in environmental sampling, bench and pilot-scale studies, groundwater tracer tests, site assessments for spill prevention, control, & countermeasures plans, wastewater allocation studies, design of single-port and multi-port diffusers, statistical distribution analyses, emissions estimations for facility permitting,toxicity testing,surface water remediation,and project planning and budgeting. PRIOR PROFESSIONAL INVOLVEMENT: 2002-2003 Environmental Systems Corp., Senior Technologist. Mr. Coin's work included management and development of over 90 SPCC Plans,asbestos surveys,and air quality assessments. 2000-2001 AquAeTer, Inc., Summer and Winter Intern. Mr. Com's work included tidal dispersion study, creosote emissions analyses, SVE system design, groundwater and soil monitoring, and ambient air monitoring. AREAS OF EXPERTISE: Permitting and Best Management Plans(BMPs) Environmental Investigations and Remediation Title V Operating Permits Ambient Air Testing and Monitoring Minor Source Permitting Air Modeling NPDES Water Quality Monitoring and Modeling SPCC Plans Total Maximum Daily Load Determination BMPs for Sediment Control Dispersion Analysis BMPs for Discharge Control Site Remediation BMPs for Sediment Mitigation Soil/Groundwater Investigations Bioremediation Water Quality Modeling Bench&Pilot Scale Studies HEC Asbestos Sampling Evaluation WASP Sediment Investigation and Surveys EPD-RIV 1 Bathymetric Surveys CORMIX Visual PLUMES Industrial WATER9 Wood Treatment Chemical Hazard Analysis Air Emissions Modeling Air Emission Inventories ISCST3 Emission Data Analysis WATER9 Emission Control Evaluation Geomorphologic Analysis State Voluntary Cleanup Programs Flood Sampling and Flow Analysis Creek Surveys and Profile Assessment �r optimizing resourccs I water, air, earth CHRISTOPHER D. SLIGER, E.I. EDUCATION: B.S., Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 2010 PROFESSIONAL LICENSES AND CERTIFICATIONS: Engineering Intern - Tennessee PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS AND AFFILIATIONS: American Nuclear Society, Member CURRENT PROFESSIONAL INVOLVEMENT: 2010-present, AquAeTer, Project Engineer Mr. Sliger joined AquAeTer in the Brentwood, Tennessee office in 2010 to assist with environmental and civil engineering related projects. Mr. Sliger has extensive coursework in low-level and high-level radiation shielding, along with radiation detection and measurement. Mr. Sliger also has course experience in thermal hydraulics, and has specifically studied and modeled Boraflex degradation in spent fuel pools. He now assists on projects related to water quality modeling using EPD-RIVI and AERMOD, diffuser performance reporting, litigation support, and dredging reports. PRIOR PROFESSIONAL INVOLVEMENT: 2008-2010 Wolfelan Combat Sports, Knoxville, Tennessee, Marketer 2005-2006 Friendly Environment, Technician AREAS OF EXPERTISE: Environmental Investi ate Erosion/Sediment Control Water/Wastewater Treatment Pollution Prevention Computer/Modeling AERMOD EPD-RIV 1 MATLAB FORTRAN SCALE KENO :eTeirr optimizing resources I watcr, air, earth. MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page I PRESIDENT INTRODUCTION Mr. Corn, P.E., BCEE has over 37 years of experience as an environmental engineering consultant. He is currently President of AquAeTer, Inc. and a Technical Director for the company. He is recognized as a leader in the fields of air emissions inventories, air modeling, and air permitting, water quality studies including wasteload allocation modeling, dispersion modeling and contaminant transport, wastewater treatment using biological, physical/chemical and wetlands treatment of wastewaters, water supply and treatment, soil, vadose zone, and groundwater sampling, modeling and remediation, as well as, solid hazardous and nuclear waste management. Mr. Corn is also working in the areas of cost analysis for environmental impacts, life-cycle analysis including carbon dioxide sequestration, and pollutant analysis and impacts from industrial sources. Since AquAeTer's inception in 1992, Mr. Corn has worked with clients including industry, electric utilities, telecommunications, trade groups, municipalities, state governments, federal agencies, defense agencies and law firms. Mr. Corn has worked with industry, trade groups, municipalities, state governments, federal agencies, and defense agencies. Mr. Corn has worked on projects in over 40 states, two U.S. territories, and 16 foreign countries. Mr. Corn is a Registered Professional Engineer in Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. Mr. Corn is an Adjunct Instructor in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at Vanderbilt University. He teaches classes on monitoring, modeling, permitting, and regulatory affairs for air, water quality, wastewater, and solid, hazardous, and nuclear wastes. AWARDS AND HONORS Mr. Corn and AquAeTer along with Horner and Shifrin were recognized with an Honors Award from the Illinois Consulting Engineering Council for work on an effluent diffuser to the Rock River Water Reclamation Authority located in Rockford, Illinois, Mr. Corn received the Weston Award from TAPPI for technical excellence in environmental studies for the pulp and paper industry including his work in water quality, wastewater, and air.. Mr. Corn was recently;,selected and certified by the American Academy of Environmental Engineers as a Board Certified Environmental Engineer, one of only 2,500 Board Certified Environmental Engineers in the world. MICHAEL R. CORN,P.E.,BCEE Page 2 PRESIDENT TRADE ORGANIZATIONS Mr. Corn previously served on the Technical Association for the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) as Committee Chair for the Environmental Subcommittee for the annual Engineering, Pulping and Environmental conference. He received the Weston Award for outstanding Technical Contributions to the Pulp and Paper Industry in 2008. Mr. Corn is a member of the American Nuclear Society (ANS), the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) for the pulp and paper industry, as well as, a member of the Treated Wood Council (TWC) where he serves on the committee for Life Cycle Analysis of Treated Wood including CO2 sequestration, energy use, environmental effects, and water use. Mr. Corn is a member of the Water Environment Federation. He serves as the Secretary for the Board of Directors and is a Technical Advisor for the Harpeth River Watershed Association in Tennessee on water quality and wastewater treatment issues at POTWs in the basin. PATENTS Mr. Corn is a co-holder of an U.S. Patent for a hazardous waste treatment system (U.S. Patent No. 4,844,813 issued July 4, 1989). This patented design remains the only land treatment unit to receive a Resource Conservation and Recovery (RCRA) Part B Permit in the State of New Jersey. He is also the co-inventor of a patent for co-metabolic biostimulation for in-situ treatment of groundwater contamination containing double- bonded carbon molecules, such as, polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated organics and volatile organics. He has applied�this technology at two creosote wood treating sites, at two chlorinated organic sites, and at a site with volatile organics including toluene and acetone. SPECIFIC WATER QUALITY AND RELATED EXPERIENCE Mr. Corn, P.E. has 37 years of experience as an environmental engineering consultant having worked on Clean Water Act (CAA), Clean Air Act (CAA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund), Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) related projects. He is currently President of AquAeTer, Inc. and the Technical Director for the company. Mr. Corn is recognized as a leader in the fields of water quality modeling and diffuser design, nutrient analysis of receiving waterbodies, both free-flowing and reservoir/lake settings, stream reaeration, measurement of deoxygenation rates in-stream, time-series biochemical oxygen demand analyses, non-point source analyses, hydrologic flow-event characterization including monthly low-flow event analyses, non-point source contributions to water systems, and biological analyses of streams including macrobenthos and fisheries studies, total chlorophyll analyses and caged fish studies for contaminant uptake for uptake and depuratiori rates for modeling, and contaminant MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 3 PRESIDENT transport for chemicals and radionuclides. A list of the waterbodies Mr. Corn has worked on is provided in Table 1. Mr. Corn has worked on numerous municipal and industrial wastewater treatment facilities conducting pretreatment assessments, conceptual design of wastewater treatment including biological activated sludge and aerated stabilization basins, hydraulic analysis and capacity of treatment facilities, and physical/chemical treatment of toxics. Mr. Corn served on a team that assessed the City of Columbus, Ohio POTW advanced design which included activated sludge treatment, sludge handling, and hydraulic capacity analysis. He worked with Gulf Shores in Alabama to add carbon for meeting stringent BOD limits for meeting water quality limits in the Intracoastal Waterway. He worked with the American Bottoms Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility in Sauget, Illinois on a USEPA Notice of Violation for effluent ammonia concentrations. This work also included an assessment of pretreatment requirements to prevent toxicity to the POTW. He worked with a Monsanto plant near Detroit, Michigan on mercury impacts to the POTW. He worked with Kerr-McGee and The Dalles, Oregon POTW on impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the POTW. He addressed concerns from POTWs in Columbus, Mississippi and Texarkana, Texas on impacts of PAHs and Arsenic on the POTW including sludge landspreading. He was the Engineer of Record for a aerated stabilization basin design and installation for a pulp and paper mill located in Riceboro, Georgia for meeting effluent BOD5 limits of 5 mg/L. He is assisting the City of Camden, Tennessee on effluent ammonia limits. He is also working with a pulp and paper mill to nitrify and denitrify a wastewater containing 500 mg/L of ammonia. He assisted the City of Dalton, Georgia on alternatives for their discharge to the Conasauga River which required an effluent BOD5 of less than 5 mg/L. Hold and Release and land treatment were two alternatives considered with land treatment being the ultimate treatment selected. Mr. Corn worked with Tronox and the City of Springfield, Missouri on an accidental release of a petroleum-creosote mixture to the City POTW. The release caused the loss of the activated sludge capacity and resulted in a fish kill. After working with the state investigators, no criminal charges were brought against the contractor who released the material. 'Mr. Corn has testified before the Illinois Pollution Control Board on effluent ammonia impacts from the Emerald Performance Materials industrial wastewater treatment facility. Mr. Corn also worked on a conceptual design for nonradioactive wastewater treatment facility for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Mr. Corn has conducted water quality studies and assessments on over 200 streams, lakes, and estuaries in the United States and internationally. Mr. Corn is a recognized expert in water quality and water resource studies. These studies include wasteload allocations and Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) studies and analyses, dispersion analyses for near-field and far-field mixing zones, diffuser designs, and diffuser performance testing, water supply and treatment, biological inventory, fish advisory analysis, QUAL2E dissolved oxygen and WASP dynamic DO modeling studies, stream remediation studies, and contaminant transport, fate and effects analysis. He also assists clients in permit applications and negotiations; with the goal of receiving the best MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 4 PRESIDENT technically sound and cost effective permits possible for the client. Mr. Corn has been a leader in real-time permitting for complex receiving stream effluent discharge scenarios. Mr. Corn is a recognized expert in water quality and water resource studies. He has conducted water quality and quantity studies including modeling. He has trained the Texas Water Resources staff in radiotracer reaeration of streams, trained the West Virginia Department of Natural Resources, in wasteload allocation stream studies and QUAL2E modeling, and worked in cooperation with Bob Ambrose and Tom Barnwell of USEPA, Athens to provide the first calibration of the USEPA WASP model. He has previously worked with Jim Greenfield of the Georgia Environmental Protection Division (former TMDL Coordinator for USEPA, Region 4) and the USGS in Doraville, Georgia to provide monthly wasteload allocations for the Conasauga River in Dalton, Georgia, and provided through a State of Tennessee grant to the Duck River Agency a monthly wasteload allocation for the Duck River near Columbia, Tennessee. Mr. Corn is currently working on a Use Attainability Analysis for Coffee Creek and Mossy Lake, tributaries to the Ouachita River in Arkansas; a wasteload allocation study for nutrients and carbonaceous ultimate biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD,,) for about 60 miles of the Conecuh/Escambia River in Alabama and Florida in response to a TMDL for nutrients for Escambia Bay; a wasteload allocation study on the Tombigbee River from Demopolis Lock and Dam to Coffeeville Lock and Dam; and a wasteload allocation on the Grand Neosho River near Pryor, Oklahoma. He has previously completed wasteload allocations and TMDL analyses for the Turtle River in Brunswick, Georgia; the Altamaha and Ocmulgee Rivers from Warner Robbins to Everett, Georgia; the Flint River/Lake Blackshear from Oglethorpe to Flintside, Georgia; the Broad River/Lake Murray near Elberton, Georgia; the Grand Neosho River in Oklahoma; the Red River in Arkansas and Oklahoma; the Duck River near Columbia, Tennessee; the West Fork Stones River at Murfreesboro, Tennessee; and the Saluda River/Lake Murray near Newberry, South Carolina. Mr. Corn has.-considerable experience in effluent discharge dispersion and water quality analyses on diffusers and dispersion analyses in rivers, estuaries, and oceans. Mr. Corn has conducted radiotracer reaeration measurements on about 200 miles of streams, has used most water quality models, and has knowledge of most water quality investigative and field procedures. Mr. Corn was Project Manager for radiotracer reaeration studies conducted for NCASI in Arkansas and Louisiana in 1980. The data were used to develop the current versions of the QUAL2E model. Mr. Corn has considerable experience,in:effluent discharge dispersion and water quality analyses on diffusers and dispersion analyses in rivers, estuaries, and oceans. He has conducted radiotracer reaeration measurements on approximately 200 miles of streams, using most of the standard water quality models. Mr. Corn was Project Manager for radiotracer reaeration studies conducted for NCASI in Arkansas and Louisiana where the data were used to develop the current versions of the QUAL2E model. Additional studies have included dye, salt, radiotracer and other tracer studies, near-field and far-field mixing regimes, modeling, diffuser designs for acute, chronic, human health and wildlife criteria. Constituents studied have included color, salt, ammonia, metals including mercury, chromium, arsenic and lead, organics, temperature, MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 5 PRESIDENT radionuclides, PCBs, DDT, lindane and other pesticides/herbicides. The studies have also included biological inventories, habitat analyses, macrobenthos investigations, mussel identification and counts, and uptake and depuration studies of constituents from the water column, food sources and sediments within the mixing zones. In 1993, Mr. Corn received the Engineering Excellence Award, along with an affiliate design firm, from the Consulting Engineers Council of Illinois for work on a multiport diffusion system for treated wastewater effluent for the Rock River Water Reclamation District of Rockford, Illinois. Mr. Corn was responsible for the field study to delineate the mixing zone and the modeling to determine dispersion and the preliminary diffuser design. The multiport diffusion system is an application of water resource engineering on inland waterways and provides a cost effective method for developing rapid initial mixing and dispersion of treated wastewater. . Mr. Corn has conducted over 40 mixing zone studies involving computer simulations, dye tracing and diffuser design. He has given expert testimony before state regulatory agencies and before hearing judges on establishing mixing zones, impacts from discharges and defining mixing in rivers, lakes, estuaries and oceans. Specific experience includes mixing zone studies and diffuser designs for the Turtle River in Brunswick, Georgia, the Chattahoochee River at Atlanta and Marietta, Georgia, the Broad River/Russell Lake at Elberton, Georgia; the Mississippi River at Cordova, Alton and Sauget, Illinois, the Illinois River at Joliet, Ottawa, and Henry, Illinois, the Rock River at Rockford and Joslin, Illinois, the Green River near Sheffield, Illinois; the Ohio River at Mount Vernon, Indiana, Lake Michigan at Whiting, Indiana; Fields Brook/Ashtabula River in Ashtabula and Lake Erie in Ashtabula, Ohio; Taunton River at Dighton, Massachusetts; Quinnipiac River in North Haven, Connecticut; Arthur Kill in Port Reading, New Jersey, Atlantic Ocean off Toms River, New Jersey, the Delaware River at Thorofare, New Jersey; the Allegheny River at Natrona, Pennsylvania; the Kanawha River at Institute, West Virginia; the Cape Fear River near Castle Hayne, North Carolina; the Saluda River/Lake Murray near Newberry, South Carolina; Hillsborough Bay at Tampa, Florida, West Bay of St. Andrew Bay, near Lynn Haven, Florida;the Mill Creek and the Cumberland River at Nashville; the Tennessee River at Counce, Tennessee; the White Oak Creek and the Clinch River at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the Tennessee River at Decatur, Alabama, the Alabama River near Burkville, Alabama; Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek on Redstone Arsenal, Alabama; Black Creek Cooling Water Facility near Pascagoula; Mississippi; the Pearl River at Monticello, Mississippi; the Tennessee River at Calvert City, Kentucky; the Green River at Maxey Flats, Kentucky; the Red River near Valliant, Oklahoma; the Cedar River at Columbus, Junction, Iowa; Hylebos Waterway at Tacoma, Washington; Amuay Bay at Amuay, Venezuela; and the Mediterranean Sea off Jaffa, Israel. Mr. Corn has conducted water quality studies and analyses for the Georgia Environmental Protection Division, the Texas Water Resources Department, the Tennessee Department of Environment and,Conservation, West Virginia Department of Natural Resources, the Cities of Columbia, Murfreesboro, and Nashville, Tennessee, the City of Columbus, Ohio, the Cities of Sauget, East Alton, and Rockford, Illinois, and the MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E.,BCEE Page 6 PRESIDENT Cities of Atlanta and Dalton, Georgia; the Department of Energy; and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These water quality studies were usually in cooperation with the USEPA. Mr. Corn has worked on quantity and quality studies for water supply systems in Nashville and Franklin, Tennessee; Myrtle Beach, South Carolina; Dalton, Georgia; Kill Devil Hills and Hatteras, North Carolina; and Thorofare, New Jersey. This has included estimates of water quantity available, treatment of water for supply, residuals management including solids and water discharges, and impacts of water withdrawals. LITIGATION SUPPORT/EXPERT TESTIMONY Mr. Corn has prepared reports, expert reports, and given depositions and/or testimony in Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and Texas on toxicity, water quality impacts, mixing zones, diffuser designs and expected dispersion, CERCLA and TCSA remediations, soil contamination, stream sediment assessments for impacts to human health and ecological risk, TRI reporting, ambient air monitoring, air emissions estimates, air modeling from point and area sources, biological wastewater treatment and technologies of wastewaters and sludges, soil and groundwater bioremediation including land treatment, spray irrigation and evaporation techniques, sludge fixation, risk analyses for both human and ecological health, environmental costs, and the impacts of various pollutants to the environment. AIR EMISSIONS ESTIMATES, MODELING AND PERMITTING Mr. Corn is a recognized expert in''air emission estimates, air permitting, air modeling and ambient air monitoring. He has performed air projects at refineries, inorganic and organic chemical manufacturing facilities, wood-treating facilities, steel mills, coal, oil and gas-fired boilers and electrical generation units, and at pulp and paper mills. Mr. Corn has conducted air permitting including Title V Air Permitting at the Emerald Performance Materials chemical manufacturing facility located in Henry, Illinois and was an expert witness for a permit appeal before the Illinois Pollution Control Board on SOZ emissions; at the Augusta Newsprint Mill located in Augusta, Georgia; for Kerr-McGee former wood treating facilities located in Avoca, Pennsylvania, Indianapolis, Indiana, Madison, Illinois, Columbus, Mississippi, Springfield, Illinois, Texarkana, Texas, and The Dalles, Oregon; for Koppers wood treating facilities located in Montgomery, Alabama, North Little Rock, Arkansas, Grenada, Mississippi and Denver, Colorado; for Atlantic Wood treating facilities located in Savannah, Georgia and Hainesport, New Jersey; for SCM Chemicals located in Ashtabula, Ohio; and for the U.S. Ecology Subtitle C Hazardous Waste Landfill located in Beatty, Nevada. He has conducted AERMOD modeling for SOZ emissions from a pulp and paper mill and prepared estimates of HZS emissions from wastewater treatment units at a pulp and paper mill. MICHAEL R. CORN,P.E.,BCEE Page 7 PRESIDENT Mr. Corn has prepared numerous air emission estimates for pulp and paper manufacturing facilities, wood treating facilities, chemical facilities, petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants, steel mills, and other manufacturing facilities. He has recommended air emission control equipment and made estimates of equipment capacity for pollutant removal based on plant capacity. He has assessed air permitting requirements for a steel mill in the Great Lakes area. He has also assessed costs for controlling air emissions including mercury emissions. Mr. Corn has conducted air emissions modeling for the Weyerhaeuser Pine Hill pulp and paper mill located near Yellow Bluff, Alabama; Koppers North Little Rock facility; for the SCM Titanium Dioxide facility located in Ashtabula, Ohio; for the Arkansas Eastman Chemical Manufacturing facility located in Batesville, Arkansas; for the Tronox, Texarkana facility; and for the U.S. Ecology Hazardous Waste Landfill located in Beatty,Nevada. Mr. Corn has conducted ambient air quality and emissions monitoring at the Amerada Hess Purvis, Mississippi Refinery; at the Pennwalt Superfund site in Natrona, Pennsylvania and their chemical manufacturing facility located in Calvert City, Kentucky; at the Koppers North Little Rock wood treating facility in North Little Rock, Arkansas, at their Tie Plant wood treating facility located in Grenada, Mississippi and at their Guthrie wood treating facility in Guthrie, Kentucky; at the New Holland tractor manufacturing facility located in New Holland, Pennsylvania; and at an abandoned building site owned by Woodmen of the World in Morristown,New Jersey. Mr. Corn was also a technical director for ambient air emission tests conducted around creosote and pentachlorophenol plants located in Arkansas and Mississippi. These tests included analyses for PAHs, volatile organics, metals, dioxins/furans, and phenolics. He presented the results of one of these emission monitoring studies before a jury in Little Rock, Arkansas. Mr. Corn has also directed soil sampling in a neighborhood downwind from a creosote and pentachlorophenol plant. Mr. Corn was the Technical Director for preparation of a Title V Permitting Manual for the wood treating industry sponsored by the American Wood Preservers Institute (AWPI). This model is still widely used by the industry. REMEDIATION Mr. Corn has conducted remediation projects for pulp and paper manufacturing facilities, wood treating facilities, chemical facilities, petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants, and other manufacturing facilities. Mr. Corn has worked as an engineer, manager, or technical director on at least 15 CERCLA sites and 25 RCRA sites during his career. MICHAEL R. CORN,P.E.,BCEE Page 8 PRESIDENT Mr. Corn assisted in negotiations of the first remedial action to be carried out on a Superfund site in Ashtabula, Ohio where the USEPA CERCLA, TSCA, and RCRA offices oversaw remediation activities at the site. The remedial action was implemented in accordance with a TSCA work plan, but was a hybrid procedure based on the three sets of regulations. Approximately 6,600 tons of soil was removed from this active chemical manufacturing site for disposal in an efficient manner both in costs to the three owners (past and current) and plant operations. He also represented the facility owner on the Technical Committee for this Superfund site and evaluated USEPA data, remediation plans, and project costs in the interest of the clients. Mr. Corn directed an in-situ bioremediation pilot study for groundwaters contaminated with creosote and petroleum residuals that resulted in removal of the constituents over an 18-month period to less than the state's risk-based standards. The success of this in-situ bioremediation system resulted in a patent, in which Mr. Corn was a co-inventor. Mr. Corn has been performing contaminant transport, fate and effects analyses which include risk assessment since 1976. He has projected transport of radionuclides, inorganic and organic chemicals, conservative pollutants such as salt, and he has addressed the fate of these pollutants in the various media, i.e., air, water and earth, as they are transported away from their source. He has compared the projected concentrations of these pollutants as to their impact on known risk-based concentrations published by federal and state agencies. He has provided these risk assessments in the wood treating industry including the oil-borne preservatives, creosote and pentachlorophenol, and the inorganic preservatives, copper-chromium-arsenic; in the inorganic chemical industry for chlorine, titanium tetrachloride, and metals; in the organic chemical industries for dioxins and furans, organic chemicals and metals; in the pulp and paper industry for dioxins and furans, organics and salt; in manufacturing including farm implements for metals, solvents and pesticides/herbicides; and in the nuclear industry for radionuclides and mixed wastes. Mr. Corn has worked on RCRA, Superfund and Voluntary Clean-up sites in Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Washington. MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 9 PRESIDENT PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS: "Dissolved Oxygen in the Harpeth River: Connecting Point Source, Non-Point Source, and Water Withdrawals", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn, P.E., Harpeth River Association: Dorie Bolze Pam Davee, .American Water Resources Association, April 17, 2007 "Wastewater Treatment Upgrades", Michael R. Corn, Dr. Wes Eckenfelder; Paul Marotta, Interstate Paper, 2007 - 2008 "Expert Testimony on AERMOD Modeling of S02 and TRS from a Pulp and Paper Mill", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta; John Michael Corn, Weyerhaeuser, 2007 - 2008 Expert Testimony on Title V Permit S02 Emissions, Michael R. Corn, Emerald Performance Materials, 2007 - 2008 Benzene in Creosote; Vapor Analysis of Door Openings, Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta; John Michael Corn, Koppers Inc, 2007 -2008 "Wastewater Treatment Model of Refinery WTF", Michael R. Corn, Dr. Wes Eckenfelder; Paul Marotta; Chrisie Brown, Koch Flint Hills Refinery, 2007 "Comments on SARA Form R Modeling for Creosote Wood Treating", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta, John Michael Corn, Texas Electric Cooperatives, Burke-Parsons- Bowlby, AmeriTies, 2007 t "Carbon Sequestering in the Treated Wood Industry", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn; Chrisie Brown; Paul Marotta, Treated Wood Council, 2007 "Determining Labile and Recalcitrant Organic Nitrogen for TMDL Projections", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn, P.E., AquAeTer; Georgia-Pacific Corp. - Stephanie Kilgore, Tim Jones, Kim Grantham, Robert Sackellares, Bill Jernigan, TAPPI Engineering, Pulping& Environmental Conference -Atlanta, Georgia, Nov-7-2006 "Expert Reports; Expert Testimony; Technical Review", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn; Chrisie Brown; Paul Marotta, Tronox, Texarkana, TX & Avoca, PA, 2006 -present "TMDL Analysis and Water Supply Availability of the Harpeth River", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn, Harpeth River Watershed Association, 2006 - present "In-Situ Bioremediation of PAHs in Vadose Zone Soils", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta, John Michael Corn, Seaman Timber, 2006 - present MICHAEL R. CORN,P.E.,BCEE Page 10 PRESIDENT PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS—CONVD: "Expert Testimony on Nutrient Runoff and Lake Eutrophication", Michael R. Corn, Petro Stopping Centers, 2006 - present "Nitrification/Denitrification of an Ammonia-Based Pulp & Paper Mill Wastewater", Michael R. Corn, Wes Eckenfelder; Paul Marotta; Chrisie Brown; Ram Ramaswami, Temple-Inland, 2006 - 2007 "Mixing Zones for Stormwater and Continuous Discharges", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn, Wabash Mine Company, 2006 - 2007 "Water9 Modeling", Michael R. Corn, St. Louis Metropolitan Sanitary District, 2006 - 2007 "Pretreatment Permit Assistance", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta, Saturn Corporation, 2006 "Form R Reporting Meeting with USEPA, Region 5", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta; Tom Zordan -Zordan & Associates,Koppers Inc, 2006 "Mixing Zone in Manatee River for Copper", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn;Ned Fiss- AWARE Environmental, Tropicana, 2005 -present "Technical Overview of Mercury Treatment Technology", Michael R. Corn, Ram Ramaswami, Wes Eckenfelder, Kobe Steel, 2005 - 2006 "Expert Report; Expert Testimony; Field Investigations", Michael R. Corn, Dr. James Clarke; Chris Green, Elmo, Greer& Sons, 2005 - 2006 "Diffuser Performance Test", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn, Emerald Performance Materials, 2005 "Acid Neutralization in Groundwater", Michael R. Corn, Chrisie Brown, Wes Eckenfelder, Steve Wampler, Tierra,Solutions, 2004 - present "Ammonia Release from Wetlands", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta, International Paper, 2003-2004 "Expert Report; Ambient Air Monitoring; Soil Monitoring", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta, Chrisie Brown, Koppers Inc, 2003 - present "Emissions Monitoring", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta; Darci Scherbak, Koppers Inc, 2003 - present "Mixing Zone for Meeting Water Quality Limits", Michael R. Corn, Chrisie Brown,Noveon, 2003 MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 11 PRESIDENT PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS—CONT'D: "Lagoon Closure", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta, John Michael Corn, Kerr- McGee, 2003 "Dynamic TMDL of the Arkansas River", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn, Georgia-Pacific, 2002-2004 "Technical Assistance for Expert Report", Michael R. Corn, Jim Clarke, Monsanto, 2002-2003 "Cap Design for Foundry Slag", Michael R. Corn, Guyton Giannotta, Steve Wampler, Case-New Holland, 2002 "Wastewater Treatment Turn-key Project", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta, Kerr- McGee, 2002 "Stormwater Permitting", Michael R. Corn, Kerr-McGee, 2002 "RCRA Subpart W Drip Pad Closure", Michael R. Corn, Guyton Giannotta, Universal Forest Products, 2002 "Sediment TMDL Analysis", Michael R. Corn, City of Murfressboro, TN, 2002 "Mixing Zone Confirmation Study into Lake Erie", Michael R. Corn, Shaleen McCormick, Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, 2002 "DO Monitoring of the Tombigbee River", Michael R. Corn, Shaleen McCormick, Georgia-Pacific, 2002 "TMDL of Big Bear Lake for Nutrients", Michael R. Corn, Ray Lawing, City of Big Bear, CA, 2002 "TMDL Training", Michael R. Corn, , Georgia-Pacific, 2002 "TMDL Training", Michael R. Corn, Jerry Schwartz, AF&PA, TAPPI, 2002 "Due Diligence for Acquisition of Potlatch Mills", Michael R. Corn, Pam Hoover, Paul Marotta, Sappi, 2001-2002 "Diffuser Performance Test in Pamlico Sound", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn; Eric Weatherly,_, Dare County Water Department, 2001 "NPDES Permit for Once-Through Cooling Water", Michael R. Corn, Dr. Ted Helfgott, Beth Hebert, Enterprise, Enterprise, 2001 "Side-Channel Discharge Design and Mixing Zone Modeling", Michael R. Corn, Chris Green, Fifth-Third, 2001 MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 12 PRESIDENT PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS—CONT'D: "Treatability Tests for In-Situ Treatment of Creosote Residuals", Michael R. Corn, Chrisie Brown, John Michael Corn, Kerr-McGee Chemical, 2001 "Remediation of Old Landfill", Michael R. Corn, Steve Wampler, Guyton Giannotta,New Holland, 2001 "Title V Permit", Michael R. Corn, Pam Hoover, Augusta Newsprint, 2000 - present "Design Review of Wastewater Treatment, RCRA ", Michael R. Corn, Wes Eckenfelder,Bob Stein, Hovenza, 2000-2004 "Bathymetric Studies of Red River for Effluent Diffuser", Michael R. Corn, Barry Firth, Weyerhaeuser, Weyerhaeuser/CH2MHill, 2000-2001 "Title V Air Permitting", Michael R. Corn, Pam Hoover, Inland Container,2000 "Technical Analysis of Contaminant Transport", Michael R. Corn, Seaman Timber, 2000 "NPDES Permit for New Discharge", Michael R. Corn, Pam Hoover, Enterprise, 2000 "Bioswale Design for Metals Removal,•RBCA", Michael R. Corn, Chrisie Brown, Chris Green, Universal Forest Products, 1999 - present "Expert Testimony; Emissions Controls; Title V Permit; Emissions Estimates", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta, John Michael Corn, Koppers Inc, 1999 -2002 "TMDL for Coal Mine Drainage", Michael R. Corn, Ray Lawing, State of Virginia, 1999-2000 "Title V Air Permit", Michael R. Corn, Shaleen McCormick, Koppers Inc, 1999 - 2000 "Audit for Odor Reduction for ADPCE", Michael R. Corn, Shaleen McCormick, Koppers Inc, 1999 - 2000 "Title V Air Permitting", Michael R. Corn, Steve Wampler, Koppers Inc, 1999 - 2000 "Expert Report on Historical Air Emissions", Michael R. Corn, Shaleen McCormick, Lincoln Creosote, 1999 "Pretreatment Permit Assistance", Michael R. Corn, Pam Hoover, Inland Container, 1999 MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 13 PRESIDENT PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS—CONV D: "SARA Form R Preparation for RCRA Subtitle C Landfill", Michael R. Corn, Shaleen McCormick, Pam Hoover, U.S. Ecology, 1999 "SARA Form R Preparation for RCRA Subtitle C Landfill", Michael R. Corn, Shaleen McCormick, Pam Hoover, Texas Ecologists, 1999 "Hard Piping Analysis to ASBs", Michael R. Corn, Moira Layman, International Paper, 1999 "Thermal Cooling Pond Analysis", Michael R. Corn, Ray Lawing, Mike Foster, Mississippi Power, 1999 "Bathymetric Study for Sediment Buildup in High Rock Lake", Michael R. Corn, Ned Fiss, Davidson County,NC, 1999 "Environmental Risk Mitigation Strategies for Commercial Real Estate Transactions", Michael R. Corn, Mortgage Bankers Association of America, February 1998 "RCRA Part B Permitting, Air Modeling and Landfill Design", Michael R. Corn, Steve Wampler, Chris Bolin, Paul Marotta, US Ecology, 1998 to present "Due Diligence for Acquisition", Michael R. Corn, Steve Wampler, Dana Bradford, Chris Bolin, Universal Forest Products, 1998 to present "Title V Permitting, Stormwater, Emissions Testing", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta, Koppers Inc, 1998 to present "Due Diligence for Acquisition of 50% of HOVIC Refinery", Michael R. Corn, Steve Wampler, Pam Hoover, PDVSA, 1998 "Due Diligence of City Park", Michael R. Corn, Dawn Blackledge, City of Jacksonville/Aerostar, 1998 "Fields Brook Technical Advisory Board", Michael R. Corn, Bill Schildt, Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, 1998 "Mixing Zone Analysis", Michael R. Corn, Ritchie Taylor, Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, 1998 "Mixing Zone Analysis", Michael R. Corn, John Boren, Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, 1998 "Stormwater Permitting", Michael R. Corn, Dana Bradford,Koppers Inc, 1998 MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 14 PRESIDENT "Stormwater Permitting", Michael R. Corn, Dana Bradford, Universal Forest Products, 1998 "Algal Influences on the Assimilative Capacity of the Red River", Michael R. Corn, , Biological Sciences Symposium - San Francisco, California, October, 1997 "Due Diligence for Acquisition Interest in Phillips Sweeny Refinery", Michael R. Corn, Van -Wurm, Steve Wampler, Pam Hoover, PDVSA, 1997-1998 "Environmental Due Diligence for Acquisition", Michael R. Corn, Pam Hoover, Bob Lasater, PDVSA, 1997 "Nitrification in an anaerobic lagoon; Feedback from sludges", Michael R. Corn, Dana Bradford, International Paper, 1997 "Title V Air Permit", Michael R. Corn, Shaleen McCormick, Ross Worsham, Atlantic Wood, 1997 "Expert Report and Deposition on Nitropropane Fire and Water Release", Michael R. Corn, , Angus Chemical, 1997 "Air Modeling for Dioxin", Michael R. Corn, Van-Wurm, Arkansas Eastman, 1997 "Title V Air Permitting, RCRA, Wastewater Treatment, Ambient Air Monitoring, Expert Testimony", Michael R. Corn, Paul Marotta, John Michael Corn, Koppers Inc, 1996 to current "Fugitive Emissions from Creosote Treated Wood Products", Michael R. Corn, , TAPPI Environmental Conference, Orlando, Florida, May 1995 "Tank Removals, In Situ Bioremediation, Vapor Extraction, Product Removal", Michael R. Corn, Guyton Giannotta, Steve Wampler, Case-New Holland, 1995 -current "Title V and SARA Modeling Manual for Wood Treatment Industry", Michael R. Corn, Mike Pierce, John Boren, AWPI, 1995 -2000 "Due Diligence and Environmental Cost Analysis for $250 Million Bond Issue", Michael R. Corn, John Uptmor, Cravath, Swain& Moore, 1995 - 1996 "Diffuser Design", Michael R. Corn, John Boren, Weston Paper, 1995 "Title V Air Permitting, SARA Form R's", Michael R. Corn, Shaleen McCormick, Pam Hoover, Kerr-McGee/Tronox, 1994-2003 "Technical Advisory Committee for Fields Brook Superfund Site", Michael R. Corn, Bill Schildt, Millennium Inorganic Chemicals, SCM Chemicals/Millennium, 1994- 1998 MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 15 PRESIDENT PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS—CONT'D: "Wetlands Analysis for Pipeline to Lake Erie", Michael R. Corn, John Boren, Ritchie Taylor, SCM Chemicals/Millennium, 1994-1995 "Title V Air Permitting Model", Michael R. Corn, John Boren, Mike Pierce, AWPI, 1994-1995 "Asbestos Survey, Removal Oversight and Building Demolition", Michael R. Corn, Elizabeth Holliday, Woodmen of the World Life Insurance, 1994-1995 "Title V Air Permitting, RCRA, Remediation, Wastewater Treatment, Expert Testimony", Michael R. Corn, Steve Wampler, Paul Marotta, John Michael Corn, Kerr- McGee Chemical/Tronox, 1994 - current "Mixing Zone for Ammonia in the Illinois River", Michael R. Corn, Jim Patterson, Amoco, 1994 "Underground Tank Removal and Remediation", Michael R. Corn, Elizabeth Holliday, Chris Bolin, Woodmen of the World Life Insurance, 1994 "Mixing Zone Analysis for Discharge of POTW Effluent to Mississippi River", Michael R. Corn, John Boren, City of Alton, 11992 "Mixing Zone Analyses for Discharge of Groundwater from Dewatering", Michael R. Corn,Tom Thompson, John Boren, Illinois DOT, 1994 "Wetlands Permit", Michael R. Corn, Ritchie Taylor, Monsanto, 1994 "Industrial Wastewater Treatment Facility Capacity Analysis", Michael R. Corn, Bob Lasater, Clark Oil, 1994 "Costs to Meet Cluster Rule for Riverwood Mill", Michael R. Corn, Cravath, Swain &Moore, 1994 "Mixing Zone Analysis for Ammonia Toxicity", Michael R. Corn, John Boren, Pam Hoover, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing, 1994 "Wastewater Treatment Performance Evaluation", Michael R. Corn, Doug Smith, Kerr-McGee, 1994 "RCRA Lagoon Closure", Michael R. Corn, Pam Hoover, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing, 1994 "Assimilative Capacity Studies, Mixing Zone Analyses/Diffuser Design", Michael R. Corn, Ritchie Taylor, John Boren, John Michael Corn, Weyerhaeuser, 1993 - current MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 16 PRESIDENT PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS—CONVD: "Due Diligence and Environmental Cost Analysis for $1 Billion Bond Issue", Michael R. Corn, Jerry Barnhill, Cravath, Swain & Moore, 1993 - 1994 "A Mixing Zone Approach for Establishing Water Quality-Based Discharge Requirements Using a Multiport Diffuser", Michael R. Corn, Frank R McNeice, Michael J. Cabral, Zeneca Inc.; Dean E. Vlachos, Advanced Aquatic Technologies Associates, Inc., Sam Shelby, Jr. The Advent Group, New England Water Environment Association, 33995 "Side-Channel Discharge Design and Mixing Zone Modeling", Michael R. Corn, John Boren, City of Alton, 1992-1993 "Results of Assimilative Capacity Study for Assuring Water Quality Protection of the Red River under NPDES Permit Conditions", Michael R. Corn, , NCASI Southern Regional Meeting - Memphis, Tennessee, 33756 "Mixing Zone Analyses for Toxicity", Michael R. Corn, John Boren, Monsanto, 1991-1992 "Diffuser Design and Performance Testing", Michael R. Corn, John Boren, Tom Thompson, Olin Brass, 1991 - 1992 Waste Management Environmental Presentation, Michael R. Corn, Waste Management Conference -Nikopol, Ukraine, 1991 "Mixing Zone Analyses and Diffuser Design for Ammonia, Expert Testimony", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn, BF Goodrich, Noveon, Emerald Performance Materials, 1989- current "Assimilative Capacity Studies, Mixing Zone Analyses/Diffuser Design, Use Attainability Analysis for Dissolved Oxygen", Michael R. Corn, Ritchie Taylor, John Boren, John Michael Corn, Georgia-Pacific, 1989 - current "Mixing Zone Analyses and Diffuser Design", Michael R. Corn, Tom Thompson, American Bottoms Water Reclamation District, 1989 "Mixing Zone Analysis/Diffuser Design; RCRA Permitting; Toxicity Analyses", Michael R. Corn, Pam Hoover, Richard Young, Ritchie Taylor, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing, 1988 - 2003 "Water Supply Analysis", Michael R. Corn, Ray Lawing, Duck River Water Authority, 1988 "Waste Assimilative Capacity/Reaeration Measurements of the Duck River", Michael R. Corn, Richard Young, Ray Lawing, Duck River Water Authority, 1987 MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 17 PRESIDENT PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS—CONVD: "Due Diligence for Diamond Shamrock facilities", Michael R. Corn, Henkel, 1986 "RCRA Alternate Concentration Limits, Part B Permits, CERCLA, NPDES Permitting", Michael R. Corn, Steve Wampler, Pam Hoover, SCM Chemicals/Millennium, 1985 - current "Due Diligence for Citgo Refinery Acquisitions", Michael R. Corn, Carl Adams, Sam Shelby, Bob Lasater, PDVSA, 1985 - 2002 "Dynamic Fish Uptake Model for DDT", Michael R. Corn, Richard Young, Ray Lawing, Olin Chemicals, 1985 -1987 "Dynamic Water Quality Modeling and Calibration of WASP Model", Michael R. Corn, Ray Lawing; Bob Ambrose, Tim Wool, USEPA, GE Plastics/CH2MHill, 1985- 1986 "Water Supply Analysis", Michael R. Corn, Carl Adams, Richard Young, Ray Lawing, Duck River Watershed Authority, 1985 - 1998 "Groundwater, RCRA, NPDES, Mixing Zones, Toxicity Testing, DYNHYD- WASP Wasteload Allocation Modeling", Michael R. Corn, Carl Adams, Sam Shelby, GE Plastics, 1985 - 1992 "RCRA Settlement Negotiations on Appendix IX Sampling", Michael R. Corn, Chuck Lettow, Ted Helgott, Amerada Hess, 1985 "Estuary Assimilative Capacity, Carbon Studies", Michael R. Corn, Wes Eckenfelder,Pleasure Island Sewer Authority, 1984 "RCRA Permitting, SPCC Plans, NPDES Permitting", Michael R. Corn, Pam Hoover, Robin Garibay, Amerada Hess, 1983 - 1992 "RCRA Permitting, Mixing Zone Delineation, Groundwater Pump and Treat", Michael R. Corn, Jim Clarke, Wes Eckenfelder, Ciba-Geigy, 1983 - 1985 "Tidal Dispersion Modeling in the Delaware River", Michael R. Corn, Barry Benedict, Pennwalt, 1983 "Waste Assimilative Capacity with Monthly Wasteload Allocations", Michael R. Corn, Carl Adams, Jeff Pintenich, Collins Packing Company, 1983 "RCRA Management Plan", Michael R. Corn, Jeff Pintenich, Carl Adams, U.S. Marines, 1982 MICHAEL R. CORN,P.E.,BCEE Page 18 PRESIDENT PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS—CONVD: "Environmental Audits", Michael R. Corn, Jeff Bull, Bob Stein, Virginia Chemicals, 1982 "Environmental Audits", Michael R. Corn, Mike Groves, Bob Stein, Mississippi Chemical, 1982 "Wastewater Source Investigation and Pretreatment Design", Michael R. Corn, U.S.Navy, 1981 "RCRA and CERCLA Permitting and Investigations", Michael R. Corn, Jeff Pintenich, Fred Ziegler, John Hines, Pennwalt, 1980 - 1982 "Radiotracer Measurements of Aerator Efficiency", Michael R. Corn, Larry Neal, E.I. Dupont, 1980 "Radiotracer Measurements of the Ouachita and Dugdemona Rivers", Michael R. Corn, Larry Neal,NCASI, 1980 "Measurements of Salt Dome Dissolution", Michael R. Corn, Jim Wallace, Bob Garrett, U.S. Department of Energy, 1979- 1980 t "Bathymetric Measurements of the Turtle River", Michael R. Corn, Larry Neal, E.I. Dupont, 1979 "Tritium Sources and Fate in the Shallow Groundwater System", Michael R. Corn, Jim Wallace, Georgia Power, 1979 "Analysis of Ash Pond Leakage", Michael R. Corn, Jim Wallace, Larry Neal, Georgia Power, 1979 "Radiotracer Reaeration Measurements Training", Michael R. Corn, Larry Neal, Jim Wallace, Texas Water Resources Agency, 1978 "Radiotracer Reaeration Measurements of Black Creek", Michael R. Corn, Larry Neal, Sonoco Products, 1978 "Assimilative Capacity Studies", Michael R. Corn, Larry Neal, Jim Wallace, J.E. Sirrine, 1977 "FERC Underwater Dam Inspection", Michael R. Corn, Jim Labasti, Steve Wampler, Crisp County Dam Authority, 1977 MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 19 PRESIDENT PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS—CONT'D: "Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites Licensing", Michael R. Corn, Jim Grant,Nuclear Engineering Co, 1976 - 1979 "Waste Assimilative Capacity/Reaeration Measurements of the Flint River", Michael R. Corn, Ernie Tsivoglou, Jim Wallace; Larry Neal, Procter and Gamble, 1976 - 1977 "Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Transport", Michael R. Corn, Jim Grant, Larry Neal, Exxon Nuclear, 1976 "Waste Assimilative Capacity Study of the Conasauga River", Michael R. Corn, Larry Neal,Jim Wallace, City of Dalton, 1975 - 1979 "316(a) and (b) Water Intake and Thermal Discharge Report", Michael R. Corn, Bob Garrett, Bill Imbur, John Nemeth, Gulf Power, 1975 - 1976 "Environmental Impact Statement for a New Gypsum Disposal Site", Michael R. Corn, Bob Garrett, Bill Imbur, John Nemeth, Gardinier, 1975 - 1976 "Lake Management Plan for Lake Magorrie", Michael R. Corn, Don Henley, City of St. Petersburg, 1975 PEER-REVIEWD PAPERS: "Determining Labile and Recalcitrant'Organic Nitrogen for TMDL Projections", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn, P.E., AquAeTer; Georgia-Pacific Corp. - Stephanie Kilgore, Tim Jones, Kim Grantham, Robert Sackellares, Bill Jernigan, TAPPI Engineering, Pulping& Environmental Conference -Atlanta, Georgia, Nov-7-2006 "Quantifying Environmental Releases to Ground and Surface Waters from Disposal Sites", Michael R. Corn, Michael R. Groves, Jeffery L. Pintenich, James H. Clarke, The AWARE Corporation, 7th Biennial Conference 1984 Hazardous Material Spills Conference, April 9-12, 1984 "Dissolved Oxygen in the Harpeth River: Connecting Point Source, Non-Point Source, and Water Withdrawals", Michael R. Corn, John Michael Corn, P.E., Michael R. Corn, Harpeth River Association: Dorie Bolze Pam Davee, American Water Resources Association, April 7, 2007 "How Total Maximum Daily Limits (TMDLs) Will Impact Your Water Permits", Michael R. Corn, TAPPI Virtual Seminar,November 19, 2002 MICHAEL R. CORN, P.E., BCEE Page 20 PRESIDENT PEER-REVIEWD PAPERS—CONVD: "TMDL Modeling Tutorial", Michael R. Corn, Ray Wittemore, NCASI, TAPPI Environmental Conference, Charlotte,NC, April 22, 2001 "Persistent & Biochemical Constituents in the Wood Treating Industry", Michael R. Corn, American Wood Preservers Institute, March 12, 2000 "Results of Assimilative Capacity Study for Assuring Water Quality Protection of the Red River under NPDES Permit Conditions", Michael R. Corn, William Jernigan, Georgia-Pacific Corporation, TAPPI Environmental Conference, March 1993 "A Mixing Zone Approach for Establishing Water Quality-Based Discharge Requirements Using a Multiport Diffuser", Michael R. Corn, Frank R. McNeice, Michael J. Cabral, Zeneca Inc.; Dean E. Vlachos, Advanced Aquatic Technologies Associates, Inc., Sam Shelby, Jr. The Advent Group, New England Water Environment Association, January 26, 1993 "Results of Assimilative Capacity Study for Assuring Water Quality Protection of the Red River under NPDES Permit Conditions", Michael R. Corn, Dean E. Vlachos, Advanced Aquatic Technologies; William Jernigan, Georgia-Pacific Corporation, NCASI Southern Regional Meeting - Memphis, Tennessee, June 1992 "Complying with the New Water Quality Standards: The Role of Mixing Zone Evaluations", Michael R. Corn, Carl M. Crane, Dean E. Vlachos, The Advent Group, Inc., 34th Great Plains Waste Management Conference, March 22, 1990 "Surface Water Discharge Modeling", Michael R. Corn, Carl M. Crane, the Advent Group, Inc., Indianapolis Center for Advanced Research, Inc., July 25, 1989 "Summary & Recommendations on Water Quality Modeling of Nitrification/Denitrification Processes", Michael R. Corn, ToxiWASP Seminar, March 1980 "Radiotracer Measurements of the Oukh'ita and Dugdemona Rivers", Michael R. Corn, Larry Neal,NCASI, 1980 "Fugitive Emissions from Creosote Treated Wood Products", Michael R. Corn with M.J. Wikstrom, S.T. Smith, and N.E. Bock, Tappi, Orlando, Florida, May 1996. TABLE 1. RIVER BASINS EXPERIENCE OF MICHAEL R.CORN RIVER BASIN STATE RIVERS INVESTIGATED Altamaha GA Altamaha River from Warner Robbins to Everett City,GA Altamaha River at Jesup,GA Altamaha River at Hatch Nuclear Plant near Baxley,GA Oconee River from Athens to Altamaha River Ocmulgee River from Warner Robbins to Altamaha River Apalachicola GA Flint River/Lake Blackshear near Vienna,GA Flint River at Woodbury,GA Chattahoochee River/Lake Lanier at Atlanta Flint River at Atlanta International Airport Chattahoochee River at Atlanta Flint River at Oglethorpe,GA Chattahoochee River at Marietta GA,FL Chattahoochee River from Lake Sydney Lanier to Apalachicola Bay Arkansas River OK Grand Neosho River at Pryor,Oklahoma OK Arkansas River at Muskogee,OK AR Arkansas River at Little Rock,AR Arthur Kill NJ Arthur Kill near Port Reading,NJ Calcasieu River LA Calcasieu River at Lake Charles, LA Cape Fear River NC North Cape Fear River near Wilmington,NC Chesapeake Bay WV Potomac River, WV MD Patapsco River near Baltimore,MD Colgate Creek at St.Helena,MD VA York River near Yorktown,VA James River near Hopewell,VA Page I of 9 TABLE 1. RIVER BASINS EXPERIENCE OF MICHAEL R.CORN RIVER BASIN STATE RIVERS INVESTIGATED Colorado River TX San Gabriel River near Austin,TX Brushy Creek near Austin,TX Columbia River OR,WA Columbia River at The Dalles,Oregon Columbia River at Kalama,WA Conecuh River AL Conecuh River downstream from Brewton,AL Cooper River SC Catawba River in Lancaster County, SC Lake Greenwood/Saluda River/Lake Murray near Newberry, SC Lake Murray/Broad River near Columbia,SC Cooper River at Charleston,SC Ashley River at Charleston,SC SC,NC Broad River near Gaffney,SC NC -Broad River tributary near Tyron,NC Corpus Christi Bay TX Nueces River/Corpus Christi Bay near Corpus Christi,TX Cumberland River TN Cumberland River/Mills Creek at Nashville Cumberland River/Barkeley Reservoir Cumberland River/Cheatam Reservoir Cumberland River/Old Hickory Reservoir Cumberland River/Cordell Hull Reservoir Cumberland River/Cumberland Reservoir Wolf River/Dale Hollow Reservoir Martins Fork/Martins Fork Reservoir Laurel River/Laurel River Reservoir West Fork Stones River near Murfreesboro,TN Stones River/Percy Priest Reservoir near Nashville, TN Delaware River NJ Delaware River near Bridgeport,NJ Delaware River near Thorofare,NJ Page 2 of 9 TABLE 1. RIVER BASINS EXPERIENCE OF MICHAEL R.CORN RIVER BASIN STATE RIVERS INVESTIGATED Escambia River FL Escambia River from AL-FL stateline to Pensacola Bay Illinois River IL Chicago Ship&Sanitary Canal at Lemont,IL Des Plaines River at Elwood,IL Illinois River at Peoria, IL Illinois River at Ottawa,IL Illinois River at Henry,IL Sangamon River near Illiopolis,IL Intracoastal Waterway FL Intracoastal Waterway near St. Lucie Nuclear Plant Intracoastal Waterway near Gulf Shores,AL Jacinto River TX Cypress Creek near Houston,TX Lake Erie NY Niagara River at Niagara Falls,NY Cattaraugus Creek from West Valley to Lake Erie Lake Erie from Cataraugus Creek to Buffalo Water Intake OH Black River at Lorain,OH Fields Brook/Ashtabula River near Ashtabula,OH Lake Erie at Ashtabula,OH MI Lake Erie near Trenton, MI Lake Michigan IN Grand Calumet near East Chicago Little Calumet River/Bums Harbor near Porter,IN Lake Michigan at Whiting, IN Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor in Northern Indiana MI Menominee River,WS Lake Superior WS Superior Bay at Superior WS Merimack River NH Lake Winnipesaukee near Meredith,NH Page 3 of 9 TABLE 1. RIVER BASINS EXPERIENCE OF MICHAEL R.CORN RIVER BASIN STATE RIVERS INVESTIGATED Mississippi River IA Iowa and Cedar Rivers near Columbus Junction,IA Des Moines River near Eddyville,IA LA Mississippi River at Donaldsonville, LA Mississippi River at Port Hudson,LA IL Mississippi River at Sauget,IL Rock River at Rockford,IL Mississippi River at Cordova, IL Green River near Sheffield, IL Rock River at Joslin,IL Mississippi River at Alton, IL Wood River Tributary at East Alton,IL Missouri River MO Mississippi River at Venice,IL Mississippi River at East St. Louis,IL Little Sac River near Springfield,MO Mobile River AL Alabama River near Burkville,AL Black Warrior River near Birmingham,AL Mobile Estuary near Mobile,AL Mobile River near Bucks,AL Alabama River at Montgomery,AL GA Etowah River/Allatoona Lake near Cartersville, GA Oostanaula River near Calhoun,GA Drowning Bear Creek/Conasauga River at Dalton,GA Coosawattee River/Carters Lake near Carter,GA AL, FL Intracoastal Waterway/Perdido Bay near Gulfshores,AL GA,AL Coosa River Basin from Atlanta area to Montgomery,AL Mystic River MA Mystic River tributary near Woburn,MA Page 4 of 9 TABLE 1. RIVER BASINS EXPERIENCE OF MICHAEL R.CORN RIVER BASIN STATE RIVERS INVESTIGATED Narangansett Bay MA Taunton River/Mt. Hope Bay near Taunton,MA Neches River TX Neches River near Jacksonville, TX Ohio River KY Green River tributaries near Maxey Flats,KY OH Scioto River near Columbus, OH Ohio River at Addyston,OH Paint Creek near Greenfield,OH IN Ohio River at Mt. Vernon,IN WV Kanawha River near Charleston,WV Hurricane Creek near Hurricane, WV Soak Creek near Sophia,WV PA Allegheny River near Natrona,PA Ouachita River LA Ouachita River near Sterlington,LA AR Ouachita River near Camden,AR Smackover Creek at Smackover,AR AR LA Ouachita River near Crossett,AR Ouachita River from Lake Catherine in AR to Columbia Lock and Dam in L. Pearl River MS Pearl River near Monticello,MS Page 5 of 9 TABLE 1. RIVER BASINS EXPERIENCE OF MICHAEL R.CORN RIVER BASIN STATE RIVERS INVESTIGATED Pee Dee River SC Black Creek near Hartsville,SC Black Creek/Lake Robinson near McBee,SC NC Yadkin River/High Rock Lake near Lexington,NC VA Roanoke River near Roanoke,VA Pigeon River NC,TN Pigeon River from Blue Ridge Parkway to Newport Puget Sound WV Commencement Bay/Flylebos Waterway at Tacoma,WA Quinippiac River CT Quinippiac River near North Haven, CT Radnor Lake,Otter Creek TN Radnor Lake in Davidson County,TN Red River TX Wagner&Days Creeks near Texarkana,TX OK,TX Red River from Lake Texoma to Sterlington AR,TX,OK,NM Red River near Ashdown,AR OK Red River near Valliant,OK LA Red River near Shreveport,LA Rock River IL Rock River at Joslin,IL Rock River at Rock River, IL St.Clair River MI Black River/St. Clair River near Port Huron,MI St. Simons Sound GA Turtle River Estuary at Brunswick,GA San Francisco Bay CA Guadalupe River at Sunnyvale,CA Redwood Slough at Redwood City,CA Page 6 of 9 TABLE 1. RIVER BASINS EXPERIENCE OF MICHAEL R.CORN RIVER BASIN STATE RIVERS INVESTIGATED Savannah SC,GA Savannah River from Lake Hartwell to Savannah Harbor SC Lake Hartwell near Clemson,SC GA Savannah River at Augusta,GA Savannah River at Votgle Nuclear Plant Savannah River/Clark Hill Reservoir at Elberton,GA SC Lake Hartwell/Savannah River at Ocoee Nuclear Plant St.Andrews Bay FL St.Andrews Bay near Panama City, FL Shasta River CA Beaughton Creek at Weed, CA Tampa Bay FL Alafia River/Hillsborough Bay near Tampa, FL Tennessee River TN White Oak Creek at Oak Ridge,TN Tennessee River near Counce,TN Duck River near Columbia,TN Clinch River at Clinton,TN Tennessee River at Knoxville,TN AL Huntsville Spring Branch/Indian Creek at Redstone Arsenal AL Lake Wheeler near Decatur,AL KY Tennessee River at Calvert City,KY Tombigbee River AL Tombigbee River from Demopolis L&D to Coffeeville L&D Trinity River TX Trinity River Basin Turtle River GA Turtle River near Brunswick,GA Wabash River IN I Wabash River at Terre Haute, IN Page 7 of 9 TABLE 1. RIVER BASINS EXPERIENCE OF MICHAEL R.CORN RIVER BASIN STATE RIVERS INVESTIGATED INTERNATIONAL Amuay Bay Venezuela Amuay Bay at Amuay, Venezuela Lake Maracaibo Venezuela Lake Maricaibo at Maricaibo,Venezuela Seine River France Seine River at Vernon,France River Thames England River Gade at Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead Grand Union Canal River Thames River Isis at Wolvercote,Oxford,England River Ruddlesworth England River Ruddlesworth at Femis Cowles,Blackburn, England .River Leven Scotland River Leven at Markinch,Glenrothes,Fife, Scotland Leine River Germany Leine River at Alfeld,Germany Donau River Germany Donau River at Ehingen,Germany Vaal River Republic of Vaal River/Kowles Dam at Springs,Gauteny,South Africa South Africa Umvoti River Republic of Umvoti River at Stanger,South Africa South Africa Ncawenie River at Stanger, South Africa Umvoti Estuary at Stanger, South Africa Crocodile River Republic of Elands River at Ngodwana, Mpumalanga,South Africa South Africa Ngodwana River at Ngodwana,Mpumalanga, South Africa Crocodile River at Ngodwana,Mpumalanga,South Africa Tugela River Republic of Tugela River at Tugela, Natal,South Africa South Africa Page 8 of 9 TABLE 1. RIVER BASINS EXPERIENCE OF MICHAEL R.CORN RIVER BASIN STATE RIVERS INVESTIGATED Mkomaas River/Indian Ocean Republic of Mkomaas River at Umkomaas,Natal, South Africa South Africa Indian Ocean at Umkomaas,Natal,South Africa Dniepper Ukraine Dniepper River at Nikopol,Ukraine Page 9 of 9