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2014-2024_StateSWMgmtPlan_Draft_2014-09-22NORTH CAROLINA SOLID WASTE AND MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PLAN The State Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan is a comprehensive plan required by state law which assesses the status of solid waste and materials management in North Carolina while providing new objectives and strategies to achieve environmental and economic benefits for the next ten years. 2014- 2024 Draft: September 22, 2014 About the authors The development of the 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan is an example of a collaborative process that reflects the efforts of many parties, including: the public, Division of Environmental Assistance and Customer Service staff (Scott Mouw, Rob Taylor, Joe Fitzpatrick) and Division of Waste Management staff (Andrea Keller, Deb Aja, Michael Scott, Ellen Lorscheider, Ed Mussler, Tony Gallagher, Jason Watkins and Dennis Shackelford). 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan Draft: September 22, 2014 Table of Contents Acronyms.............................................................................................................................................................................. 5 ExecutiveSummary............................................................................................................................................................. 6 Chapter1: Introduction....................................................................................................................................................... 8 1.1 Legislative and Planning History............................................................................................................................ 8 1.2 The 2014-2024 Plan..................................................................................................................................................... 9 1.3 Overview..................................................................................................................................................................... 9 1.4 Public Participation and Input...............................................................................................................................10 Chapter 2: Plan History - Review of Previous Ten Year Solid Waste Plan................................................................11 2.1 Initiatives from Previous Plan................................................................................................................................11 2.2 Conclusion................................................................................................................................................................. 17 Chapter 3: Overview of Current North Carolina Materials Management System...................................................18 3.1 Status and History of Disposal...............................................................................................................................18 3.2 Disposal Facilities, Capacity, and Siting...............................................................................................................19 3.3 Sources of Discarded Material................................................................................................................................ 20 3.4 Discarded Materials Constituting Commodities................................................................................................. 21 3.5 Discarded Materials Requiring Disposal.............................................................................................................. 22 3.6 Industrial Materials Requiring Disposal............................................................................................................... 23 Coal Combustion Wastes from Power Plants........................................................................................................ 23 Shale Gas and Shale Oil Exploration and Production Industrial Wastes........................................................... 25 RegulatedMedical Waste......................................................................................................................................... 26 3.7 Brown Grease and Septage Management............................................................................................................. 27 3.8 Management of Compost........................................................................................................................................ 28 3.9 Status of Disposal Bans........................................................................................................................................... 29 3.10 North Carolina Recycling Infrastructure and Economy................................................................................... 30 3.11 Emergency Response and Disaster Debris Management Program................................................................ 31 3.12 Basis for Plan Elements......................................................................................................................................... 33 3.13 Synopsis................................................................................................................................................................... 37 Chapter4 Plan Elements................................................................................................................................................... 38 4.1 Plan Element: Facilities, Disposal, Permitting, and Compliance...................................................................... 38 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 3 Draft: September 22, 2014 Objective4.1.1 Shift from disposal.......................................................................................................................... 38 Objective4.1.2 Evaluate landfills............................................................................................................................. 39 Objective 4.1.3 Focus on closed landfills................................................................................................................. 39 Objective 4.1.4 Focus on solid waste issues............................................................................................................40 Objective 4.1.5 Reduce illegal activities.................................................................................................................. 40 4.2 Plan Element: Materials Management.................................................................................................................. 41 Objective 4.2.1 Identify waste for diversion........................................................................................................... 41 Objective 4.2.2 Improve materials management.................................................................................................... 42 Objective 4.2.3 Support recycling economy........................................................................................................... 42 4.3 Plan Element: Special Waste Management........................................................................................................... 43 Objective 4.3.1 Evaluate regulations........................................................................................................................ 43 Objective4.3.2 Reduce toxicity................................................................................................................................. 44 Objective 4.3.3 Improve disaster debris response................................................................................................. 44 4.4 Plan Element: Customer Service/Training — Public Engagement..................................................................... 44 Objective 4.4.1 Provide assistance............................................................................................................................ 44 Objective 4.4.2 Implement certifications.................................................................................................................45 Objective4.4.3 Develop training..............................................................................................................................45 Objective 4.4.4 Improve technology........................................................................................................................ 46 Chapter5: Conclusion....................................................................................................................................................... 47 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 4 Draft: September 22, 2014 Acronyms 2003-2013 Plan ABC CCP CCR CII C&D CRT Department FY GIS HB HHW HDPE IHSB LF MRF MSW NC DEM NC DENR NC DOR NC DOT Plan SB Section TDDS TDDSS - Update of the North Carolina Solid Waste Management Plan 2003 to 2013 - alcoholic beverage container - coal combustion products - coal combustion residuals - commercial/industrial/institutional - construction and demolition - cathode ray tubes - North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources - Fiscal Year - geographic information systems - House Bill - household hazardous waste - high density polyethylene - Inactive Hazardous Sites Branch - landfill - material recovery facility - municipal solid waste - North Carolina Department of Emergency Management - North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources - North Carolina Department of Revenue - North Carolina Department of Transportation - North Carolina 10-Year Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 2014-2024 - Senate Bill - Solid Waste Section - temporary disaster debris sites or temporary disaster debris storage - temporary disaster debris staging sites 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 5 Draft: September 22, 2014 Executive Summary The 2014 - 2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan (Plan) is a comprehensive plan required by state law to assess the status of solid waste and materials management in North Carolina and provide new objectives and strategies to achieve environmental and economic benefits for the next ten years. The first Plan was adopted in 1990 and updated in 2003. The Plan represents the third iteration of the state plan. In general, the Plan drives the Department to be responsive to new opportunities, public concerns, and critical issues, and places responsibility on the Department to exercise leadership, collaboration, strong customer service, and transparency. The Division of Waste Management and the Division of Environmental Assistance and Customer Service coordinated the development of the Plan using data from state reporting processes, staff expertise, information from other agencies, and input from stakeholders —including affiliates and organizations, waste managers, industries involved in waste diversion, and the general public. The Plan seeks to maximize the recovery of discarded materials in order to reduce the state's long-term dependence on final disposal in landfills, and to assist both private and public sector stakeholders with the technical issues associated with running economically viable, environmentally compliant solid waste management operations. Efficient and effective diversion of recyclable materials is the best strategy to minimize the long-term environmental liabilities of landfills and to respond to the growing difficulty of siting disposal facilities. That diversion also has both a proven track record and a strong potential of creating jobs and business opportunities in the state. Diversion of commodities from disposal supplies essential feedstocks to North Carolina manufacturers and delivers broad environmental benefits including emission reductions and energy, water, and resource savings. However, because not all materials constitute commodities or can be reduced or recycled, the Plan also recognizes the long term necessity of disposal facilities and the need to ensure they are safe and protective of public health and the environment. In addition, the Plan articulates the need to prepare for the permitting and deployment of new technologies for managing discarded materials, in particular technologies aimed at capturing the energy value of those materials. The Plan also calls for maintaining a robust ability to respond to the challenge of materials generated by natural disasters. The four main plan elements were developed on data, analysis, and findings and reflect a path forward for the State to minimize the environmental impacts of disposal, maximize the economic benefits of material recovery, successfully manage a range of special wastes, and ensure effective engagement with stakeholders in solid waste and materials management statewide. The elements are comprised of objectives, which are further broken down into key actions. Plan Element 1- Facilities, Disposal, Permitting, and Compliance Ensure continued stewardship of landfills and all other solid waste management activities with the goal of protecting environmental and public health while promoting economic viability. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan Draft: September 22, 2014 Plan Element 2 - Materials Management Maximize material recovery, program efficiencies, and the expansion of new markets through education, funding, and policy initiatives. Plan Element 3 - Special Waste Management Promote, educate, and regulate for the safe management and disposal of special wastes with the goal of increased re -use / recovery of these materials. Plan Element 4 - Customer Service/Training — Public Engagement Increase external and internal training and outreach with a focus toward customer service, public awareness, and environmentally sustainable solid waste and materials management. Solid waste management in North Carolina has changed since the promulgation of the Solid Waste Management Act of 1989. Disposal of solid waste in unlined landfills has progressed to lined landfill disposal. Recycling and diversion have achieved significant footholds in solid waste management and in North Carolina's economy. The solid waste management industry is changing from one of permanent entombment, to one of materials management in ways that expand current recycling and reuse efforts. Many materials can be diverted from the waste stream and have value as a resource for new products or for energy recovery. As the state progresses into the next decade, there is again an opportunity for environmental protection and new and exciting economic development opportunities through the optimized management of discarded materials. It will be a challenge for the state and its partners to capture the jobs that can be created by new industry and practices, while ensuring the protection of natural resources and public health that has made North Carolina so successful in solid waste management. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 7 Draft: September 22, 2014 Chapter 1: Introduction The 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan is a comprehensive plan required by state law to assess the status of solid waste and materials management in North Carolina and provide new objectives and strategies to achieve environmental and economic benefits for the next ten years. 1.1 Legislative and Planning History 2014 marks the 25th anniversary of the passage of Senate Bill (SB) 111, otherwise known as the Solid Waste Management Act of 1989. This legislation modernized North Carolina's management of solid waste and recycling and provided many of the core elements that still govern solid waste and materials management in North Carolina today. SB 111 established General Statute 130A-309.06, the first requirement that the State of North Carolina "develop a comprehensive solid waste management plan." In addition, SB 111 put in place many of the foundations of modern solid waste management and recycling in North Carolina, including: Laws and Rules Legal definitions for facilities, materials, activities, and other aspects of solid waste management in North Carolina; training requirements for solid waste management facility operators; and basic powers, duties, and responsibilities of state government and local government agencies in the management of discarded materials; and a framework for litter prevention and enforcement. Material Management Statewide goals for waste reduction; a statutory hierarchy of waste management options, with source reduction and recycling at the top of the hierarchy and incineration without energy recovery and landfill disposal at the bottom; the establishment of the Solid Waste Management Trust Fund; the first disposal bans on materials, including lead acid batteries, used oil, yard trash, and white goods; requirements for resin identification code labeling of plastic containers; a basic framework for managing used oil; a fee on the sale of tires and establishment of requirements on state government, local governments, tire sellers, and tire haulers to improve scrap tire management; and provisions to expand the state Department of Transportation use of recycled materials in road construction. Other major legislation built upon SB 111 to modify the framework of waste and materials management in North Carolina, including: House Bill (HB) 1109 in 1989 that changed the state's recycling goal to a waste reduction goal and placed reporting requirements on solid waste facilities; HB 859 in 1996 that further modified state goals and placed planning requirements on local governments; HB 1465 and HB 1518 in 2005 that expanded the list of materials banned from disposal and required permitted alcoholic beverage containers (ABC) businesses to recycle beverage containers; and SB 1492 in 2007 that significantly altered landfill siting and permitting requirements, established the state disposal tax, and established the electronics producer responsibility law. In all, the essential goals of this legislative history have been to reduce impacts to the environment and public health from legal and illegal disposal and to capture the environmental and economic benefits of waste reduction and recycling. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan Draft: September 22, 2014 In accordance with the General Statutes, the Department has produced three state solid waste management plans. The first plan was adopted in 1990. The 1990 plan was updated in 2003 and the accomplishments since that update are described in Chapter 2. The Plan represents the third iteration of the statutory planning process and will guide state solid waste and materials management until 2024. 1.2 The 2014-2024 Plan The Plan seeks to maximize the recovery of discarded materials in order to reduce the state's long-term dependence on final disposal in landfills and to assist both private and public sector stakeholders with the technical issues associated with running economically viable, environmentally compliant solid waste management operations. Efficient and effective diversion of recyclable materials (constituting "commodities") is the best strategy to minimize the long-term environmental liabilities of landfills and to respond to the growing difficulty of siting disposal facilities. That diversion also has both a proven track record and a strong potential of creating jobs and business opportunities in the state. Diversion of commodities from disposal can supply essential feedstocks to North Carolina manufacturers and deliver broad environmental benefits, including emission reductions and energy, water, and resource savings. However, because not all materials constitute commodities that can be diverted, the Plan also recognizes the long term necessity of disposal facilities and the need to ensure they are safe and protective of public health and the environment. The Plan articulates the need to prepare for the permitting and deployment of new technologies for managing discarded materials, especially technologies aimed at capturing the energy value of those materials. The Plan also calls for maintaining a robust ability to respond to the challenge of materials generated by natural disasters. Additional key focus areas include goals and actions to address a range of special wastes and efforts to assist private and public stakeholders with the technical issues associated with running economically viable, environmentally compliant solid waste management operations. The Plan dedicates the Department to improving customer service, training, and communication to make sure the Department and stakeholders are informed and prepared to best manage discarded materials and to reduce associated environmental impacts. In general, the Plan drives the Department to be responsive to new opportunities, public concerns, and critical issues of solid waste management, and it places responsibility on the Department to exercise leadership, collaboration, strong customer service, and transparency. 1.3 Overview The Plan is presented in three chapters: Chapter 2: Review of the previous 10-Year Solid Waste plan goals and achievements. Chapter 3: Discussion of the current materials management system in North Carolina, and presentation of the data and findings that inform the plan elements in Chapter 4. Chapter 4: Presentation of the main Plan Elements along with their related objectives and key actions. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan Draft: September 22, 2014 Plan Elements 4.1 Facilities, Disposal, Permitting, and Compliance 4.2 Materials Management 4.3 Special Waste Management 4.4 Customer Service/Training — Public Engagement 1.4 Public Participation and Input The Plan was developed by Department staff from the Division of Waste Management and the Division of Environmental Assistance and Customer Service. The process included four main opportunities for public input: 1. An online survey was made available to a wide range of stakeholders. 2. Presentations at technical conferences of the North Carolina Chapter of the Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA) and the Carolina Recycling Association (CRA). 3. Public meetings in four different regional locations: Asheville, Lexington, Kinston, and Raleigh. 4. An invitation to stakeholders to submit comments regarding the Plan directly to the Department. Detailed information from the public input opportunities is included in Appendix A of the Plan. Comments received in the public input process provided critical perspectives in refining the goals of the Plan. Survey results as reflected in the graph below indicated that the plan elements were the right areas of focus for the next ten years. The four main elements of the Plan involve the continuation of management of solid waste facilities, waste diversion, special waste management, and public engagement (training and communication). Do you feel these are the right areas of focus? (2951433 survey respondents) Yes No 0 °% 10 °% 20 °% 30 °% 40 °% 50 °% 60 °% 70 °% 80 °% 90 °% 10 0 °% 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 10 Draft: September 22, 2014 Chapter 2: Plan History - Review of Previous Ten Year Solid Waste Plan The first ten year plan was adopted in 1990 following the passage of Senate Bill 111 An Act to Improve the Management of Solid Waste, Session Law 1989-784 - which provided the foundation of the state's modern solid waste policies. Following the first period of plan management, the subsequent ten-year plan was entitled An Update of the North Carolina Solid Waste Management Plan 2003 to 2013.1 This second plan contained key elements along with specific objectives, goals, and actions. Section 2.1 below presents the overview of the 2003-2013 Plan main goals and the progress achieved toward reaching those goals. 2.1 Initiatives from Previous Plan Ensure long-term environmental protection by improving future landfill technology and address public health and environmental concerns associated with closed landfills - (3.1 of previous plan) Key Action Status Update Research bioreactor landfill design • North Carolina currently has only one bioreactor in and closure requirements; adjust operation. The Section has monitored the regulations. development and operation of this facility. Research existing landfill design • A statutory program was implemented with changes and performance; adjust regulations applicable to new facilities including liners for C&D accordingly. LF units, leak testing of geo-membrane liners, required cleaning and inspection of leachate collection system lines and dual containment of all leachate lines outside the liner system. 1 An Update of the North Carolina Solid Waste Management Plan 2003 to 2013: http://portal.ncdenr.org/c/document_library/get—file?uuid=99e250ae-d8a8-441a-952d-8faf7e5717eb&groupId=38361 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 11 Draft: September 22, 2014 Reduce the disposal of material • A statutory program was developed and with potentially harmful implemented to divert electronics materials, components in landfills. including CRTs. • Session Law 2011-294, which required state and local agencies to recycle fluorescent lights and thermostats which contain mercury and banned the mercury containing devices from unlined landfills, was implemented. • A grant program to initiate public mercury product collection services was initiated. • A statewide disposal ban on oil filters was implemented. • The number of local household hazardous waste (HHW) programs increased but still only cover parts of the state. Only 14 of the 41 programs in 2013-14 have a permanent HHW site. • C&D LF rules, effective 2007, also banned source separated treated woods, mercury switches and thermostats, lamps and bulbs, lead pipes, and flashing etc. from going to C&D landfills. Shredded and pulverized waste also cannot go to C&D landfills. Review design and monitoring • C&D LF Rules were developed, effective 2007, to requirements for C&D landfills. include safeguards such as an increased buffer to property lines, structures and wells. Rules include vertical separations to groundwater and bedrock of 4 feet, as well as an in -place or modified base under the landfill consisting of 2 feet of selected soils. • The types of materials allowed in C&D landfills were restricted to keep large quantities of potentially harmful materials common in demolition out. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 12 Draft: September 22, 2014 Develop/distribute action plans for SB 1492 in 2007 - Solid Waste Management Act of 2007, closed MSW landfills and established a program to address pre -regulatory abandoned dumpsites. landfills that closed prior to January 1, 1983, when waste disposal permitting regulations commenced. This new program was implemented by the Pre - Regulatory Landfill Unit within the Inactive Hazardous Sites Branch (ISHB) of the Superfund Section. • Solid Waste Management Act of 2007 imposed a tax of $2/ton on municipal solid waste and C&D debris disposed in landfills in North Carolina or transferred out of state for disposal. 50% of the proceeds fund prioritization, assessment and implementation of remedial action plans for each pre -regulatory landfill.2 Establish a strategy to fund long- Fund not established. Support for re -use (post -closure term care/cleanup of closed, lined activities, Brownfields, IHSB) found to improve post- MSW Us. closure care. Substantially increase the amount of waste recycled and composted - (3.2 of previousplan) Key Action Status Update Enact statewide disposal bans on Through legislative action, disposal bans were recyclable materials, e.g. pallets, implemented on wooden pallets, oil filters, plastics clean wood waste, oil filters, bottles, televisions, computer equipment, oyster cardboard, newspaper, office paper, shells, and ABC permit -holder glass. and computer monitors containing cathode ray tubes. Require local government recycling Not achieved — legislation was never proposed or programs to achieve per capita adopted on this requirement. recovery targets for specific materials. Enact a statewide surcharge on fees. • A statewide solid waste tax of $2 was established Solid Waste Management Act tipping with the passage of of 2007. Implement variable rate pricing and There has been little to no adoption of additional local mandates to increase recycling variable rate (pay -as -you -throw) programs or local participation. recycling mandates since 2003. Mecklenburg County passed a local mandatory source separation ordinance in 2002 on certain commercial materials. 2 A pre -regulatory landfill is defined as any land area, whether publicly or privately owned, on which MSW disposal occurred prior to January 1, 1983, but not thereafter, but does not include any landfill used primarily for the disposal of industrial solid waste. The Pre - Regulatory Landfill Unit has dedicated staff to oversee contractors conducting the work. A unit of local government may voluntarily undertake assessment of the site and remedial action of imminent hazards and get reimbursed if the work is pre -approved by the Unit and complies with the reauirements of G.S.130A-310.6 (f). 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 13 Draft: September 22, 2014 Continue and expand North • North Carolina's electronics producer responsibility Carolina's product stewardship legislation has been implemented. initiatives. • North Carolina helped negotiate implementation of a national producer -run system for opting out of yellow pages phone book delivery. • North Carolina continues to participate in the Carpet America Recovery Effort and in national dialogues addressing other materials. Implement a consistent funding • Achieved through the implementation of North source to recover electronics. Carolina's electronics producer responsibility law and facilitated by the state electronics recycling convenience contract.3 Increase public awareness and • DENR has implemented three state outreach commitment to recycling. campaigns - Recycle Guys, RE3, and RecycleMore - and provides ongoing outreach technical assistance to local government recycling ro rams. Increase "buy recycled" efforts by • DENR has provided technical assistance to state and state and local agencies and the local agencies and the private sector on purchasing private sector. recycled content products Increase diversion of organic • New or expanded food waste composting initiatives materials by state agencies. implemented at UNCC, UNC Asheville, Fayetteville State University, Appalachian State, NCSU, UNC- Cha el Hill, and several state prisons. Incorporate recycling and • Material diversion and recovery information composting into disaster debris incorporated into training for emergency management plans. management, local governments, and the Department of Transportation. • Since 2003, a total of 824 temporary disaster debris staging sites (TDDSS) were evaluated and approved for use by local governments and the private sector to store and process waste in the event of a disaster. Vegetative debris is approved to be accepted at most of these sites and is typically ground into mulch or composted. Currently there are 469 TDDSS available for use in the event of a disaster. Increase grant and loan funds for • Implemented through influx of 12.5% of disposal tax source reduction, recycling and revenues into the Solid Waste Management Trust composting. Fund; funding was reduced in FY 2013-14. 3 Television and Computer Equipment manufacturers pay between $2,500 and $15,000. The revenues help fund program operation and provide funding toward local government operation electronics collection programs. TV manufacturer recycling requirements help subsidize processing of television discards. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 14 Draft: September 22, 2014 Reduce litter and illegal disposal by 50% from 2003-2004 levels - (3.3 of previous plan) Key Action Status Update Document the extent and nature of • Implemented through NC DOT's annual "North littering and illegal dumping in Carolina Interagency Report on Litter Cleanup, North Carolina. Education/Prevention and Enforcement." • Implemented in part by information provided in NC DENR's "North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Annual Report." Increase educational efforts for litter • Implemented through DENR development of an reduction and enforcement. illegal dumping brochure, the increasing of illegal dumping penalties from $5,000 to $15,000, and creation of the North Carolina Solid Waste Enforcement Officers Association. Require local solid waste plans to litter • Requirement added for local plans to address litter implement a control element control but measurement element was not widely that provides measurable results. adopted. Require the Highway Patrol, local • Implemented in part through NC DOT's annual "North law enforcement agencies, and the Carolina Interagency Report on Litter courts to fully report their litter Cleanup, Education/Prevention and Enforcement." control enforcement efforts to the public. Establish an ongoing funding �/ X Not accomplished - no funding source was established source to prevent and clean up litter for this purpose. and illegal dumpsites. Research bottle bills, "litter taxes" �/ X Not accomplished - no research activity was conducted and mechanisms used by other on these issues. states to prevent litter and illegal dumping. Implement policies and procedures to provide information to the public and ensure public participation throughout the decision -making process regarding waste management facilities - (3.4 in previous plan) Key Action Status Update Ensure public involvement and • Solid Waste Management Act of 2007 required new education when siting new MSW facilities to produce environmental landfills. assessment/impact studies opening a new avenue for public involvement. • Section staff increased public outreach and participated in learning sessions with local officials. • MSWLF draft permits are published, public hearings held and written comments allowed prior to final decision. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 15 Draft: September 22, 2014 Ensure public involvement and • Public hearings are held for facilities which have education when making decisions generated major interest and concern by the local about proposed C&D, transfer and communities. compost facilities. Ensure public involvement and • Public hearings are held for major changes of existing education in decision -making for facilities and review of corrective action plans at existing and closed solid waste closed facilities. facilities. Create and continually maintain 20 years of landfill capacity in the state - (3.5 in previous plan) Key Action Status Update Increase waste reduction efforts. • Partially accomplished through expansion of local government recycling programs and private sector recycling infrastructure. • Assisted by DENR grant and technical assistance programs. Develop a process to certify or • Local government planning has identified future identify the need for facilities. needs of communities - such as in the case where landfills are set to close in near future and transfer facilities will need to be permitted in advance of capacity issues. Provide information regarding landfill • Accomplished through annual landfill capacity capacity need. analysis conducted by the Division of Waste Management. Provide information to local • Public portion of the Section website allows access to communities regarding solid waste information such as: facility location, permit status, facilities. facility documents, Facility Annual Reports, Local Government Annual Reports, and County Solid Waste Management Plans. Review the public participation • Included public participation in new C&D rules. process. • Participation process was reviewed as part of the development of Solid Waste Management Act of 2007. • Division of Waste Management reviews and documents all meetings and hearings applicable to public participation prior to permitting. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 16 Draft: September 22, 2014 Improve the efficiency of permit Section has initiated electronic storage of documents; application review. databases have been consolidated under a single format. • Permit templates have been established. • Fees and the accompanying permitting schedules, per Solid Waste Management Act of 2007, have dictated improved tracking protocol in order to meet statutory deadlines. • Fees allowed increased staffing levels and have provided for shorter permit review times. 2.2 Conclusion The 2003- 2013 Plan helped the state make advancements in reducing the environmental impacts of disposal and in moving toward a materials management approach in addressing discarded materials. Many of the objectives of the plan were accomplished, some involving legislative and rule changes that provided a foundation for achievement of future state goals. Notable progress was made in establishing dedicated funding sources for certain waste and materials management activities, modernizing the process of solid waste facility permitting, and in driving separation of recyclable commodities from waste. Much of the direction of the 2003-2013 Plan is being carried over into the 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan, including an emphasis on enhancing environmental protection through proper solid waste management and expansion of waste reduction and recycling activity. In that respect, the new plan represents a process of continual improvement that is anchored not only in the previous plan but in the foundations of North Carolina's original 1989 Act to Improve the Management of Solid Waste, Session Law 1989-784. However, the new plan also looks forward and seeks to prepare the state, with its rising population, for new and growing challenges, such as the permitting of innovative technologies, addressing special wastes, better managing disaster debris, and maximizing the economic benefits of material recovery. If North Carolina can achieve a measure of success with this new plan comparable to the previous one, it will have in place a more sustainable system of solid waste and materials management. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 17 Draft: September 22, 2014 Chapter 3: Overview of Current North Carolina Materials Management System This Section presents summary information on the generation, disposal, and recycling of materials in North Carolina. It provides the foundation for the Plan Elements, Objectives and Actions in Chapter 4 and provides benchmarks for measuring the progress of the Plan. 3.1 Status and History of Disposal The history of landfilling materials in the state is displayed in the figure below, showing the rapid increase in disposal through the 1990s and into the 2000s, followed a 22.5 percent decline in annual disposal since FY 2006-07. The decline has been estimated to be due to a combination of the ongoing effects of the economic downturn that began in late 2008, increased recycling, reductions in the generation of some discarded materials, and other factors. The figure also makes a projection of disposal if the per capita rate were to remain steady over the next 20 years, resulting in the landfilling of approximately 12.4 million tons of materials in 2033. Figure 3.1: History and Projection of Solid Waste Disposal in North Carolina North Carolina Solid Waste Disposal 20-Year Forecast 13,000,000 ACTUAL 12,000,000 0 U) 0 U 10,000,000 0 0 H 0 9,000,000 o_ 0 8,000,000 7,000,000 FORECAST 12,653,3C4 . ' 12,360,806 )pulation Iaste Disposed 6,000,000 ti��ti���T* The following table provides additional information on disposal, including the recent history of per capita disposal rates relative to North Carolina's benchmark disposal measurement year of FY 1991-92. It shows a 31 percent drop in per capita disposal between FY 2005-06 and FY 2012-13. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 18 Draft: September 22, 2014 Table 3.1: Tonnage and Per Capita Disposal of Solid Waste in North Carolina disposed •�• 9,765,229 • • 0.94 •• • �. -12.1% • • -4.1% FY 2012-13 9,149,130 2011-2012 9,443,380 9,669,244 0.98 -9.0% -1.0% 2010-2011 9,467,045 9,586,227 0.99 -8.0% -1.0% 2009-2010 9,395,457 9,382,609 1.00 -6.4% -6.8% 2008-2009 9,910,031 9,227,016 1.07 0.4% -13.7% 2007-2008 11,284,712 9,069,398 1.24 16.3% -6.9% 2006-2007 11,837,104 8,860,341 1.34 24.8% -1.4% 2005-2006 11,765,183 8,682,066 1.36 26.6% 4.9% 1991-1992* 1 7,257,428 1 6,781,321 1 1.07 1990-1991 1 7,161,455 6,632,448 1 1.08 * Baseline Year It is difficult to project future materials disposal from this historical record because of the general challenge of predicting economic activity as well as changes of material usage and generation. The North Carolina disposal history has included periods of rapid growth and rapid decline, giving little basis for accurate historically - based extrapolation. In addition, future material disposal will depend a great deal on how successful the state is in diverting recyclable commodities from landfills. Currently the state is experiencing strong momentum in material diversion, which helps mitigate environmental impacts of disposal and helps deliver economic benefits to the state. 3.2 Disposal Facilities, Capacity, and Siting Table 3.2 shows the kinds of disposal facilities in North Carolina, comparing the number of facilities in 2003 and 2013. Table 3.2: Numbers and Kinds of Disposal Facilities in North Carolina Type of Facility Number in 2003 Number in 2013 MSW Landfills 41 41 MSW/C&D Transfer Stations 80 96 C&D Landfills 65 53 MSW Incinerators 1 0 Industrial landfills 10 16 In general, the number and kind of disposal facilities in North Carolina has remained fairly steady. The number of industrial landfills has risen, principally related to the disposal of coal combustion residuals (CCR). North Carolina's sole MSW incinerator has shut down. Transfer of waste (and increasingly, recyclable materials) is a steady feature of solid waste management in the state, with 3.6 million tons sent through transfer stations in FY 2003-04 and 3.8 million tons in Fiscal Year 2012-13. A new MSW landfill has not been sited in North Carolina for over a decade. However, many existing MSW landfills have expanded into new 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 19 Draft: September 22, 2014 disposal cells increasing disposal capacity. The combination of this additional capacity at existing landfills and the decline in disposal has increased overall state disposal capacity to 32 years or 380 million cubic yards of disposal space. In addition, North Carolina is a net exporter of solid waste, sending 684,068 tons out of state in FY 2012-13 while only importing 181,002 tons. MSW landfills in adjoining states effectively add disposal capacity available to North Carolina. Recycling activity and the deployment of alternative technologies would help maintain or increase this capacity. At the rate of current disposal and the level of current capacity, every additional one million tons of diversion per year increases the in -state landfill capacity by three years. 3.3 Sources of Discarded Material North Carolina's discarded material stream can be divided into three major sources: residential, commercial/industrial/institutional (CII), and C&D. None of these material streams is dominant in North Carolina and so for the state to reach its overarching goals in this plan, attention must be paid to each of the three sectors. The Figure 3.2 shows the Department's estimate of the main sources of disposed materials in FY 2012-13 and demonstrates the balance of the three main sectors, with residential material being the larger category of the three. C&D was a major driver of tonnage increases in the late 1990s and early 2000s, but with the economic downturn slowing construction activity and with increased C&D recycling in the state, C&D's portion of the disposed waste stream has fallen from 29 percent in 1999 to 24 percent in FY 2013. The current trend of increased C&D diversion both at job sites and at C&D disposal facilities is likely to continue, further reducing C&D disposal rates. Figure 3.2: NC Percentage Estimates of Materials Streams 7CII Residential :0 -Me. -,A FY 2012-2013 Tonnage Estimates Residential 3,568,161 Commercial/Institutional/ Industrial (CII) 3,385,178 Construction & Demolition (C&D) 2,195,791 Total 9,149,130 The data in Figure 3.2 indicate that North Carolina cannot concentrate on any one sector of material generation to achieve its waste management and recycling goals. Rather, the state must employ an array of objectives and actions that affect a range of material streams at a wide variety of points of generation. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 20 Draft: September 22, 2014 3.4 Discarded Materials Constituting Commodities Since the passage and implementation of 1989 SB 111 - An Act to Improve the Management of Solid Waste the range of materials considered recyclable has grown steadily. More materials now have attained a "commodity" status — i.e., they have a demonstrated market demand and a successful record of either entrepreneurial recovery activity, inclusion in local government collection programs, or both. Table 3.3 shows the basic difference in residential materials collected during the early implementation of recycling programs following 1989 SB I I I versus what was commonly collected in 2013. Table 3.3: Comparison of Residential Materials Commonly Included in Collection Programs Typical 1990 Residential Recycling Mix Typical 2013 Residential Collection Mix 1. Newspaper 1. Newspaper 2. Glass Bottles and Jars 2. Magazines 3. Aluminum Cans 3. Mixed Paper (including materials such as 4. PET Soda Bottles direct mail and paperboard) 5. HDPE Milk Jugs 4. Telephone Books 6. Steel Cans 5. Corrugated Cardboard 6. Glass Bottles and Jars 7. Aluminum Cans 8. All PET Bottles 9. All HDPE 10. Steel Cans 11. Aseptic and Gable Top Containers 12. Non -bottle rigid plastic containers Multiple independent studies have indicated that a large fraction of currently disposed waste contains recyclable materials. Although North Carolina has not conducted a statewide waste characterization study in order to estimate the tonnages of disposed recyclable commodities, the list below indicates the types of highly recyclable materials that are still widely landfilled. These are the kinds of commodities that would be among the most logical if the state were to amend its statutory disposal bans: • Ferrous metals • Non-ferrous metals • Corrugated Cardboard • Office Paper • Newspaper and magazines Additional materials have gained significant "recyclability" since the passage of 1989 SB 111, and the general trend is for more "wastes" to gain a commodity status over time. A wider spectrum of materials are increasingly eligible for diversion as more infrastructure develops to recycle, reuse, compost, digest, or otherwise convert the materials into commodities or energy. Examples of such materials include: 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 21 Draft: September 22, 2014 • C&D wood • Concrete and brick • Used clothing and other textiles • Food waste • Fluorescent lamps • Used cooking oil and brown grease • Vinyl siding • Agricultural plastics • Clean plastic film and bags • Drywall • Asphalt Shingles • Carpet and carpet padding • Single -resin commercial and industrial plastics Food waste is a material that is gaining significant diversion momentum. A 2012 study produced by the Division of Environmental Assistance and Customer Service documented the generation of as more than 1.2 million tons of food waste in North Carolina each year. Since 2009, North Carolina has seen accelerating development and expansion of food rescue operations and composting and digestion facilities in the Triangle, the Triad, the greater Mecklenburg County region, Asheville, and a few rural areas of the state. This baseline infrastructure has unused capacity for more food waste material and is awaiting further development of collection operations to feed that capacity. The increasing trend of discarded materials transitioning from pure waste toward becoming a commodity provides an impetus for North Carolina to choose a "materials management" approach to solid waste issues. This trend is supported by a general global shift toward secondary materials over more energy -intensive virgin materials in manufacturing, which is also occurring within North Carolina. In -state manufacturers of packaging, textiles, construction products, agricultural products, paper and other goods are increasingly dependent on recycled commodities and markets, which additionally justify the need for a materials management approach by the Department. 3.5 Discarded Materials Requiring Disposal Many materials and products that are discarded have yet to achieve a commodity status and some materials that are recyclable in some areas of the state need more market and program development to achieve that status statewide. Listed below are examples of materials that likely will retain a need for disposal capacity and other materials that need broader infrastructure development: • Composite packaging and other composite products (e.g., packaging made of multiple materials) • Disposable diapers • Contaminated/non-recyclable paper • Residential and other contaminated film (e.g., cheese and meat wrappers) • Contaminated and non -recyclable foodservice packaging • Contaminated recyclables • Paper tissue and towels • Trash bags and other non -durable, non -recyclable plastics • Heavily used, contaminated, or damaged textiles and related products (e.g., shoes) • Heavily used, contaminated, or damaged furniture and furnishings • Non -recyclable by-product industrial wastes • C&D and other waste fines 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 22 Draft: September 22, 2014 • Treated lumber 3.6 Industrial Materials Requiring Disposal Industrial waste trends, which necessitate attention of NC DENR, include waste from coal fired power plants and waste from the production of shale gas or shale oil. Coal Combustion Wastes from Power Plants Power plants in North Carolina have historically generated electricity by burning coal to produce steam. The waste products from power plants are called coal combustion residuals (CCR) and include: 1. Fly ash which is carried by the flue gases, and collected by the plant's air cleaning devices in order to satisfy air quality regulations; 2. Bottom ash which are larger sized particles that fall to the bottom of the furnace or collect on the furnace walls; 3. Boiler slag which are large angular chunks of molten bottom ash; and 4. Flue gas desulfurization material, which is a dry powder, sometimes referred to as synthetic gypsum, produced during the sulfur dioxide emissions reduction process from the exhausted gas. Several of the waste products are viable for reuse, if they have suitable chemical and physical properties and are called coal combustion products (CCP). Bottom ash and slag can be used for construction purposes to replace sand and stone, fly ash can be used in the production of cement, and flue gas desulfurization products can be used in the production of sheetrock. Recycling purposes exist, but often there is not a market or the materials do not meet the construction industries' specifications. For instance, carbon content or unburned carbon, is a key property in the materials used in cement. Senate Bill 729, which became Session Law 2014-122, includes specifications for use of CCP in any construction project as part of the public procurement process. The State Construction Office and NC DOT are set to give recommendations to the ERC by February 1, 2015. The Coal Ash Management Commission to be established is directed to study how to promote, incentivize and prioritize the beneficial use of CCP over the disposal of CCR. A report on that effort is due by December 1, 2014 to the ERC and the Joint Legislative Transportation Oversight Committee. In North Carolina current management of the CCR, mostly ash, has been facilitated in three ways - disposal into landfills or into structural fills when the coal ash is dry and into impoundments when the ash is wet. Wet ash is often conveyed as slurry or sludge through a chute straight from the boiler. Air pollution control requirements have become increasingly more stringent in recent years at power plants in North Carolina and across the country. Consequently, the power plants have been producing decreasing amounts of wet ash. Overall trends in the energy industry are driving the power companies to make use of natural gas in electricity production, further reducing the need to dispose of CCR. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 23 Draft: September 22, 2014 Ash disposed in impoundments has historically been regulated by the Division of Water Resources in North Carolina. An increasing amount of the ash is dry and is sent to industrial solid waste landfills which are regulated by the Division of Waste Management. The impoundments and the landfills are usually on the same property where the ash is produced. In 2003, only three landfills were active in North Carolina at power plants and these landfills did not include liners and leachate collection systems. These landfills were at Duke Energy Belews Creek, Duke Energy Marshall, and Duke -Progress Roxboro. Since then the unlined landfills have been closed and replaced by new landfills which incorporate a liner and leachate collection system into the design, thus making them more protective of the groundwater and surface waters. After 2008, there have been additional landfills sited at the Duke Energy Cliffside, Duke Energy Allen, and Duke Energy Mayo plants. All of the landfills continue to be operated with protective liners, leachate collection, closure plans with caps, and groundwater monitoring. Senate Bill 729 requires the cessation of disposal into impoundments and the closure of all coal ash impoundments over the next 5 years. CCR currently going into impoundments and already in impoundments may be sent to lined landfills or lined structural fills. This may require the expansion of existing landfills and construction of new landfills. Duke Energy has projected that as much as 108 million tons of CCR may need to be remediated. The Division of Waste Management, with the help of increased staffing, intends to permit new landfills on an expedited schedule. Factors affecting the length of time for a permit application approval include whether the permit will be on land currently owned by the power company, or on undeveloped land. The average time it 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 24 Draft: September 22, 2014 takes to permit a new facility, can range from six to twelve months, or more, from the receipt of a complete application. Additional changes which will occur due to the passage of SB 729 include: 1. A moratorium was placed on the expansion and construction of CCR landfills until August 1, 2015. Senate Bill 729 directs NC DENR to assess the risks to public health, safety, and welfare, the environment, and natural resources of CCR surface impoundments located beneath these landfills to determine the advisability of continued operation of these landfills. 2. A moratorium was placed on structural fills until August 1, 2015 and the department of environment and natural resources and the environmental management commission are directed to do a study of the adequacy of current law governing use of CCR as structural fill and for beneficial use as well as compile an inventory of structural fill projects. NC DENR will use the study results in order to advise and make recommendation to the legislature regarding minimum statutory requirements for structural fill projects. The department will require resources to inventory and inspect structural fill projects. 3. Structural fills will require a solid waste management permit. 4. Additional requirements will be required of structural fill owners and operators. A groundwater monitoring system, an encapsulation liner system and financial assurance will be required if the fill is greater than 8,000 or more tons of CCR per acre or 80,000 or more tons of CCR in total per project. 5. Conversion of CCR impoundment to an industrial landfill by removing all coal combustion residuals and contaminated soil from the impoundment temporarily, safely storing the residuals on -site, and complying with the requirements for such landfills established by SB 729 will require Division of Waste Management staff to be used as a resource to the Division of Water Resources because of the historical, engineering and hydrogeological expertise contained within the Solid Waste Section staff. 6. The department will be required to evaluate additional opportunities for the use of CCR as structural fill and for other beneficial uses that would reduce the volume of CCR that are being disposed of in CCR landfills, industrial landfills, or MSW landfills while still being protective of public health, safety, and welfare; the environment; and natural resources. Compounding efforts at the state level to handle CCR disposed of in impoundments, landfills and structural fills, is the prospect of new federal regulations from the US Environmental Protection Agency, which are expected in December of 2014. The Division of Waste Management will continue to monitor the rule process to ensure that North Carolina citizens and business are protected in the most cost effective and environmentally sound manner possible. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Exploration and Production Industrial Wastes 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 25 Draft: September 22, 2014 Figure 3.4: Cuttings from shale gas exploration drilling The Division of Waste Management has been active in the rule making process for the regulations that will govern fracking and shale gas and oil exploration in North Carolina. Some oil and gas exploration and production wastes may be landfilled. The Division of Waste Management is working with other state agencies and private industries to make sure that regulators as well as owners and operators fully understand how to handle these industrial wastes. Operational plans and waste screening plans will be updated by all landfills which will take waste from the shale gas production industry. Shale gas waste can present operational issues at landfills if it is not properly handled. This waste often contains large amounts of bentonite or other drilling muds, in addition to rock cuttings. The waste screening plans will allow only wastes that are non -hazardous, non -radioactive, and non -liquid to be accepted by landfill operators. Regulated Medical Waste North Carolina regulations pertaining to medical waste include the requirement that all microbiological waste (infectious agents from medical, pathological, pharmaceutical, research, commercial, and industrial laboratories) and pathological waste (human tissues, organs and body parts; and the carcasses and body parts of animals that were known to have been exposed to pathogens that are potentially dangerous to humans during research, were used in the production of biologicals or pharmaceutical testing on live subjects, or that died with a known or suspected disease transmissible to humans), as well as blood and body fluids be treated to make it noninfectious prior to disposal. In recent years the nature of the medical waste treatment facilities has changed from use solely of incineration and autoclaves (steam) with the advent of new proprietary technologies to treat the waste. Most notably, the use of ozone as a treatment has allowed commercial medical waste treatment providers to now process pathological waste without incineration. Several years ago, North Carolina had two medical waste incinerators operating in the state along with three autoclave facilities and a microwave facility. Now the state has a single medical waste incinerator, three autoclave facilities and a facility that employs ozone for treatment. Figure 3.5 shows that the total tons of medical waste treated at North Carolina's commercial waste treatment facilities has been decreasing in recent years. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 26 Draft: September 22, 2014 Figure 3.5: Medical Waste Treated in North Carolina In FY 2013-2014, approximately 25,000 tons of medical waste was treated at North Carolina's medical waste treatment facilities; roughly 15,000 tons from in -state sources and 10,000 tons from other states. Ash and other solid waste from the incinerators and treatment facilities are disposed of in MSW landfills. Medical waste treatment providers and transporters are faced with tight time restraints to refrigerate and treat the waste. It is the goal of the Department to update the medical waste regulations in order to clarify the time restraints from the generator (hospital, laboratory or medical office) to the final treatment (incineration, autoclave or ozone treatment) and to clarify how medical waste is handled at en route transfer or sorting facilities. 3.7 Brown Grease and Septage Management The septage industry in North Carolina utilizes permitted land application sites, municipal wastewater treatment plants, and other alternative brown grease management options in the state for the management and final disposal of brown grease waste. In 2013, approximately 45-million gallons of brown grease waste was managed by the septage industry. The majority of brown grease waste is generated from restaurants operating in North Carolina. Grease treatment facilities have been built and permitted to manage this difficult waste stream across the state. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 27 Draft: September 22, 2014 Figure 3.6: Septage Managed in North Carolina Gallons Septage Pumped Per Year —Domestic —�FGrease Portable Toilet 120 N 0 � 100 Approximately 175,000,000 gallons 80 of septage is managed by 523 60 septage firms operating in NC, with 25% of this ao being grease. 20 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 The volume of septage pumped in 2013 (174,469,180 gallons total) shows that the overall volume of septage increasing towards the industry high figures from FY 2006-07. The septage management program is responsible for assuring that septage is managed in a responsible, safe and consistent manner across the state. Training of septage management firms and septage land application site operators continues to be a core component of staff activities. Staff participates in 12 to 14 training events each year across the state involving personnel from 523 septage firms and 130 land application site operators. Annual training events are coupled with new operator training for individuals who are new to the pumping industry in North Carolina. 3.8 Management of Compost Compost facilities in FY 2012-13 saw a continued interest in the diversion of organics from the municipal solid waste stream. Thirteen solid waste compost facilities accepted food waste in FY 2012-13 for a total reported tonnage of 29,040. An additional 18,351 tons of food processing residuals were accepted by solid waste compost facilities. The Number of composting facilities operating in North Carolina has grown to over 50 facilities this past decade with continued interest in the diversion of organics from the municipal solid waste stream. In addition the Solid Waste Section's Compost demonstration approvals provide the unique opportunity for individuals to learn additional information about composting to reduce the amount of solid waste in our landfills while having the regulatory oversight for distribution of the finished compost product. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 28 Draft: September 22, 2014 3.9 Status of Disposal Bans The disposal bans promulgated in SB 111 were implemented in various stages in the years immediately following passage of the bill, and many now have a long history of diverting materials from solid waste landfills. Additional bans have been passed and implemented since SB 111. Table 3.4 shows all of the statutory banned materials, the date of the ban, and the estimated total diversion of the specific materials since the bans went into effect. The calculations for the bans come from a variety of data sources, including local government solid waste and recycling annual reports and Department studies and reports. The vast majority of the data can be found in the North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Annual Reports. Because much of the tonnage is from local government programs and does not include private sector activity, the total diversion is understated. However, it is clear that disposal bans have been effective in diverting a large amount of material from landfills, saving airspace and delivering those materials back to the economy for use in a wide variety of products. Table 3A Tonnage of Diversion of Materials Banned from Disposal in North Carolina Material Banned Effective Date of Ban Estimated Tonnage of Diversion since Effective Date Whole Tires October 1, 1989 1,939,339 Used Motor Oil October 1, 1990 61,137 Lead Acid Batteries January 1, 1991 23,979 White Goods January 1, 1991 1,025,786 Yard Trash January 1, 1993 11,020,232 Antifreeze July 1,1994 2,010 Aluminum Cans July 1, 1994 110,081 Oyster Shells January 1, 2007 5051 ABC Permit Holder Glass January 1, 2008 165,000 Used Oil Filters October 1, 2009 666 Rigid Plastic Containers (plastic bottles) October 1, 2009 130,201 Wooden Pallets October 1, 2009 90,893 Computer Equipment July 1, 2011 11,844 Televisions July 1, 2011 17,004 Fluorescent lamps and thermostats (banned from unlined landfills) July 1, 2011 84 TOTAL 14,603,306 Scrap Tires The Scrap Tire Disposal Act, GS 130A-309.1304 was originally enacted by the legislature in 1989. Since that time the tax revenues generated from the sales of new tires has helped clean up millions of tires and helped 4 http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/ByArticle/Chapter_130A/Article_9.html 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 29 Draft: September 22, 2014 local governments prevent new tire dumps. Dumps, while unsightly and a nuisance can result in health and safety problems because the tires are a breeding place for the disease bearing mosquitoes. Figure 3.7: Credit:Center for Disease Control. A female Aedes aegypti mosquito while she was in the process of acquiring a blood meal from her human host. http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp?pid=4489 Several diseases are transmitted due to the bite of the 50 plus varieties of mosquitoes residing within North Carolina. Most of the diseases, such as dengue, yellow fever and malaria have not occurred within North Carolina recently. West Nile virus (57 cases since 2003), while a serious disease; can only be spread through the bite of a mosquito who had bitten an infected bird. Chikungunya is caused by the bite of a mosquito and carries increased risk to the state because the victim of a bite can import the disease to new areas and new populations of mosquitoes. The disease that was unheard of in the lower 48 United States until fall of 2013, has in the first seven months of 2014 resulted in 398 cases of the disease in the US, 12 of those cases were in North Carolina. The Scrap Tire program normally spends upwards of $1 million to clean up tires and prevent illegal dumping by ensuring that county governments are repaid their cost overruns. In 2013, NC statutes were amended greatly reducing the funding received to $420,000 out of the approximately $16 million tax collected by NC DOR. Future legislation to once again fully fund the scrap tire program fund will be needed to ensure that tire dumps, breeding grounds of potentially dangerous mosquitoes, are not in North Carolina. Electronics Discarded Computer Equipment and Television Management Act, according to Session Law 2010-675, allows free and convenient recycling for consumers of laptops, desktops, monitors, printers, scanners, copiers and televisions. Metals recovered from most types of electronic equipment result in value to the recycler and the local governments who collect them from their citizens. Televisions, though, often incur a cost to the local governments because the CRTs are expensive to recycle, needing most often to be sent out of the country to smelters. Several recyclers within North Carolina have in recent years been found to be using unscrupulous and illegal ways to recover the metals from televisions. Future regulations may be needed to, at a minimum, track the location of electronics recyclers within North Carolina. 3.10 North Carolina Recycling Infrastructure and Economy A major factor in the large-scale decline of disposal since 2006 has been the expansion of the North Carolina recycling economy. A key indicator of that expansion has been job growth. Figure 3.8 shows the consistent upward climb of direct private sector recycling employment in the past two decades. 5 http://www.ncleg.net/Sessions/2009/Bills/Senate/PDF/S887v6.pdf 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 30 Draft: September 22, 2014 Figure 3.8: Private Sector Recycling Jobs in North Carolina The number and kind of recycling businesses has also expanded over time. The North Carolina Recycling Markets Directory lists 740 individual recycling companies as of March 2014. This figure represents a quadrupling of North Carolina recycling firms since the Directory was established in 1989. Particularly important kinds of recycling companies in the state include glass manufacturers, large scale PET and HDPE reclaimers, automotive, textile, and construction product manufacturers that rely on recycled plastic, C&D recyclers, material recovery facilities, tissue and paper packaging manufacturers, asphalt pavers, and composters. 3.11 Emergency Response and Disaster Debris Management Program The Solid Waste Section (Section) by general statute is the regulatory entity at the state level charged with the management of solid waste, including waste generated as part of a natural disaster such as a hurricane or tornado. The first significant Section involvement in disaster debris management occurred during the 1996 hurricane season when it developed a strategy of comprehensive and effective management of debris created by disaster/weather events. As part of the recovery effort to Hurricane Floyd in 1999, then Governor Jim Hunt made major changes in state government to ensure that it would be better organized and prepared for disaster as it became evident that the Federal Government programs could not fully support the needs of the state. Hunt's efforts led to the creation of 22 new state agencies or programs at a cost of nearly $836 million and established North Carolina as a model for other states. Improving the state's disaster response and recovery capabilities has continued to be an emphasis of every administration since that time. The planning and response to such events has become a year-round responsibility for Section staff, particularly the Field Operations Branch. The Field Operations Branch currently has 20 of its 22 staff directly involved in 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 31 Draft: September 22, 2014 emergency response and disaster debris management to ensure the protection of the environment and public health through the proper management of waste and to ensure local governments are properly aligned with Federal (FEMA) and State (NC DEM) requirements for reimbursement for the management of disaster debris. Staff are members of the State Emergency Response Team, and due to changes in Homeland Security at the federal level over the past decade these responsibilities have expanded to include not only natural disaster cleanups, but also to assist local authorities in management of solid waste in the event of a terrorist attack. Disaster recovery is often one of the least understood functions across government and can easily be mismanaged without proper training and coordination. It has been proven time after time that the management of debris generated from disasters is one of, if not the most costly, expenses in the recovery process. Therefore, it is imperative that the Section continually evaluate policy, guidance, forms, and internal and external training and processes to ensure it meets the needs of local governments, other state and federal agencies, businesses, and citizens of the state in providing oversight of these programs and activities. Figure 3.9: Map of Active Debris Management Sites after March Ice Storms A recent example of the Solid Waste Section's efforts in this area are ice storms in Central and Eastern NC on March 6-7, 2014, that caused major damage to several counties in terms of power outages and downed trees. President Obama signed a Major Disaster Declaration on March 31, 2014, for the North Carolina counties of Alamance, Caswell, Davidson, Davie, Granville, Guilford, Orange, Person, and Randolph. The President's action made federal funding available to state and eligible local governments for emergency work and the repair or replacement of facilities damaged by the severe winter storm. The volume of storm debris for such a small storm turned out to approximately a million cubic yards in Davidson, Guilford, and Randolph counties. Section staff was quickly called upon to assist local and state agencies in establishing debris management sites (see Figure 3.10), attending local government meetings, working with out of state disaster recovery contractors, NC DOT, and other local, state, and federal officials. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 32 Draft: September 22, 2014 Figure 3.10: Solid Waste Section staff inspecting the City of Greensboro Debris Management Site: Demonstrating the vast amount of debris waste that can be generated by a storm. 3.12 Basis for Plan Elements The four main plan elements in Chapter 4 were developed from the data and analysis presented above and from DENR staff findings in the tables below. They reflect a path forward for the State to minimize the environmental impacts of disposal, maximize the economic benefits of material recovery, successfully manage a range of special wastes, and ensure effective engagement with stakeholders in solid waste and materials management statewide. Plan Element 4.1 - Facilities, Disposal, Permitting, and Compliance 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 33 Draft: September 22, 2014 Plan Element 4.1 - Facilities, Disposal, Permittin , and Compliance • Entrepreneurial and technological activity to divert materials from traditional solid waste landfilling continues to increase in North Carolina. These activities create the need to improve regulatory and permitting processes for successful and environmentally sound materials management. • North Carolina has documented the current availability of 32 years of disposal space (380 million cubic yards). The state should maintain its monitoring of disposal capacity in Plan Element 4.1: order to project future disposal needs. As the first Ensure continued stewardship of landfills generation of lined landfills reaches the second and, in some and all other solid waste management cases, third decade of use, the systems of groundwater activities with the goal of protecting protection at those facilities should be closely monitored. environmental and public health while • Unlined closed landfills may present long-term potential to promoting economic viability. harm the environment and public health due to slow decomposition processes and other variables. Monitoring, technical assistance, and compliance will be critical for assessing and reducing the risks associated with these facilities. • Although progress has been made, illegal disposal, littering, and dumping will likely remain a continuous challenge for the state. Collaboration with local governments and other groups and strengthening the legal framework for compliance will help the state address these issues. Plan Element 4.2 - Materials Management • As much as 800,000 tons of common residential recyclable materials are disposed each year in North Carolina. Optimizing the recovery of these materials, with a focus on improving the effectiveness of local government and private residential recycling efforts, will contribute to the materials Plan Element 4.2: management goals of this Plan. Maximize material recovery, program • Population and material density are not sufficient to sustain efficiencies, and the expansion of new efficient material recovery facilities in many rural areas of markets through education, funding, and the state. However, rural communities can take advantage of policy initiatives. large-scale material recovery facility (MRF) capacity through transport of materials via "hub and spoke" transfer facilities or via compacted smaller loads sent directly from drop-off sites. • Broad access to recycling for North Carolinians at away - from -home locations, such as parks, sports fields, convenience stores, beaches, pedestrian areas, and 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 34 Draft: September 22, 2014 Plan Element 4.2 - Materials entertainment venues, will increase material recovery and will normalize and reinforce recycling behavior at home and work. C&D materials represent a quarter of all disposed waste in North Carolina. Sound and enforced regulations will enhance the reliability and legitimacy of C&D recycling. Encouraging diversion activities at C&D disposal facilities and targeting attention on key materials offer the best opportunities to expand recycling C&D recycling. • Food discards represent more than 1.2 million tons of the disposed materials annually in North Carolina. Spreading diversion activities across critical generating sectors and building a broader base of collection services will effectively expand food waste recovery. • Establishing a competitive network of private recycling haulers and material collectors helps ensure recycling services are widely available to commercial, institutional, and industrial generators. This infrastructure complements the residential infrastructure operated by local governments and is a source of job creation and entrepreneurial development. • Although banned from disposal since 1990, whole scrap tires still require creation of a competitive hauling and processing infrastructure and the development additional value-added uses for the material. • Diversion of materials from disposal will result in job and business growth and will also provide more efficient and localized supply streams for North Carolina manufacturers. • Creating and maintaining a public "recycling ethic' across the state helps improve participation and efficiency in local government recycling programs and the effectiveness of the overall recycling system. • Many manufacturers and other generators are working to achieve "zero waste to landfill' in their facilities, which will reduce the industrial waste stream and increase the flow of materials to recycling collectors and processors in North Carolina. • Optimizing recycling efforts at state agencies, universities, and community colleges, while expanding into new areas of diversion will help reduce disposal and improve the efficiencies of their programs. • Widening the adoption of best management practice collection techniques will improve the overall efficiency of 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 35 Draft: September 22, 2014 Plan Element 4.2 - Materials Management the local electronics recycling program and bolster the electronics recycling industry in the state. • Many materials in the discard stream are not readily recyclable due to cross -contamination with other materials or by being combined with other materials in composite products. Energy recovery ranks higher than landfill disposal in the state's waste management hierarchy and should be explored as a way to further reduce dependence on landfill disposal. • The management of discarded electronics will continue to require attention and improvement in North Carolina to ensure the materials are handled efficiently and in a manner that minimizes environmental impacts and compliance issues. Plan Element 4.3 - Special Waste Manage ent • Solid waste streams from coal combustion and oil and gas exploration will require further research, the development of state regulations that are aligned with federal standards, and identification of recycling and environmentally sound disposal diversion options. • Special discard streams such as leftover pharmaceuticals, medical waste, and HHW will require ongoing attention and the development of educational and programmatic efforts to Plan Element 4.3: reduce the associated environmental risks and to encourage Promote, educate, and regulate for the safe safe diversion from landfill disposal. management and disposal of special wastes • Disaster debris can be expected to be a major element of with the goal of increased re -use / recovery materials management for North Carolina. Cooperative of these materials. action with local governments, education and awareness activities, and the development of staging, processing, and disposal capacity will all be critical strategies for effectively managing the debris. • Although progress has been made, illegal disposal, littering, and dumping will likely remain a continuous challenge for the state. Collaboration with local governments and other groups and strengthening the legal framework for compliance will help the state address these issues. Plan Element 4.4 - Customer Service/Trainin — Public Engagement Plan Element 4.4: • The environmentally sound management of materials and Increase external and internal training and solid waste is complex and requires a high level of technical outreach with a ocus toward customer awareness and proficiency by all stakeholders. Coordinated 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 36 Draft: September 22, 2014 service, public awareness, and technical assistance efforts, effective state -local environmentally sustainable solid waste and collaboration, and training programs can help ensure that materials management. materials and waste are handled properly with minimum effect on the environment and public health and can help ensure greater levels of efficiency and commitment to materials management. • Operator certification programs are a critical strategy for supporting compliance and environmentally sound management of permitted facilities. The statutory requirement for landfill operator certification provides a useful precedent for possible certifications for HHW, compost, industrial, and CCR facilities. Department outreach programs have supported public awareness of the importance of recycling and additional outreach and training efforts could help bolster that awareness as well as address issues such as illegal dumping and general solid waste management. The Department has made progress in the use of Web -based information sources on permits and facilities. Enhancing the use of the Web and sharing more resources online can efficiently improve transparency, awareness, and the general availability of critical solid waste and materials information. 3.13 Synopsis Data and information in this chapter of the 2014-2024 Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan provides background and context for Chapter 4, which details the Plan Elements. Since the passage of the SB 111 in 1989, North Carolina has experienced a modernization of its waste management infrastructure, changes in its regulatory structure, expansions in recycling, and the implementation of other key laws. The Plan Elements in Chapter 4 are designed to maintain the state's momentum toward a solid waste and materials management system that successfully protects the environment and public health and maximizes the economic benefits of recovery. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 37 Draft: September 22, 2014 Chapter 4 Plan Elements This Chapter of the 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan presents specific objectives and actions for the ten year period, all organized under four main plan elements: • Facilities, Disposal, Permitting, and Compliance • Materials Management • Special Waste Management • Customer Service/Training — Public Engagement The objectives and actions are based on the data, analysis, and findings presented in Chapter 3 and reflect a path forward for the State to minimize the environmental impacts of disposal, maximize the economic benefits of material recovery, successfully manage a range of special wastes, and ensure effective engagement with stakeholders in solid waste and materials management statewide. 4.1 Plan Element: Facilities, Disposal, Permitting, and Compliance Ensure continued stewardship of landfills and all other solid waste management activities with the goal of protecting environmental and public health while promoting economic viability. Objective 4.1.1 Shift from disposal Shift from a disposal first mentality to one of materials management, beneficial reuse, recycling and energy recovery. 1. Key Action: Review current statutes, rules and definitions concerning treatment and processing of recycled or recovered materials and beneficial use, and align North Carolina regulations with current national usage. 2. Key Action: Develop and implement requirements for the recovery and processing of C&D materials. 3. Key Action: Provide legal mechanisms and guidance for the operation of alternative solid waste technologies and material management practices such as energy extraction, anaerobic digestion, gas to energy, and pyrolysis. 4. Key Action: Evaluate the need for rules governing material recovery facilities, update transfer station facility rules, and clarify requirements for the transport and storage of single stream recyclables. 5. Key Action: Develop a repository for information on evolving technology and lead the way in recommending state policy and rule changes. 6. Key Action: Evaluate permit process to improve communication, timeliness, and ease of use for applicants without compromising protection of the environment and public health • Establish criteria and a process for stakeholders to have access to pre- and post- permit application meetings to aid in permit preparation and quality. • Continue to expand internal data collection and tracking in order to identify potential looming bottlenecks and be proactive in assigning resources. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 38 Draft: September 22, 2014 • Educate facility owners/applicants regarding their responsibilities and actions that will enable their permit process to progress smoothly and on time. Objective 4.1.2 Evaluate landfills Continue to evaluate landfill capacity, design, monitoring, and performance to maximize protection of public health and the environment and consider the cost benefit of such actions. 1. Key Action: Review effectiveness of leachate systems with respect to loading due to age and size, head on liner, and operational factors. 2. Key Action: Review effectiveness of the design of unlined C&D landfills for the management and control of leachate and evaluate the need for revised design requirements. 3. Key Action: Evaluate landfill capacity, ensure adequate disposal options for the businesses and citizens of the state, and encourage polices for regional cooperation. 4. Key Action: Determine how to best alert the public to potential or known health impacts relating to groundwater and landfill gas issues. Objective 4.1.3 Focus on closed landfills Focus resources on the specific issues facing closed landfills across the state to ensure proper maintenance and management of these permanent disposal sites. 1. Key Action: Develop and implement initiatives to minimize the known public and environmental health impacts generated by closed landfills. • Continue development and management of the Environmental Monitoring Database; • Identify compliance issues linked to the maintenance and management of closed landfills and to develop preventative strategies such as early detection with an adequate monitoring system, assessment / investigation, corrective action, and technical assistance. • Provide oversight and assistance for facilities to achieve continued compliance, cost savings associated with early detection, and the minimization of potential impacts for both private entities and local governments. 2. Key Action: Provide resources for technical assistance, site inspections, and the creation of guidance documents on the post -closure care of landfills. 3. Key Action: Study and propose options and standards for the reduction, cessation, or extension of environmental monitoring at closed landfills. 4. Key Action: Investigate options for custodial care of old and abandoned landfills and landfills past the required post -closure care period. 5. Key Action: Continue to work with potential developers and facility owners to approve post -closure usage of closed landfills while enhancing environmental and public health measures; conduct outreach and explore providing uniform guidance on beneficial use of closed landfills. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 39 Draft: September 22, 2014 Objective 4.1.4 Focus on solid waste issues Focus resources on the specific issues facing permitted solid waste management activities across the State to minimize environmental risk and to improve economic viability and regional efficiencies. 1. Key Action: Provide resources for technical assistance, site inspections, and the creation of guidance documents for the proper active management of solid waste facilities. 2. Key Action: Collaborate with the Division of Water Resources, waste water treatment plant owners, local governments, and the septage industry to increase the number of facilities that treat brown grease and septage wastes. 3. Key Action: Encourage pilot programs with local governments, septage firms, and utilities to establish more alternative final disposal sites for brown grease waste, such as municipal anaerobic digesters dedicated for taking brown grease waste. Objective 4.1.5 Reduce illegal activities Reduce illegal solid waste activities, such as littering, unpermitted disposal, and indiscriminate dumping. 1. Key Action: Collaborate with local governments, regional agencies, and private organizations engaged in cleanup and enforcement activities. • Continue participation in and support of the NC Solid Waste Enforcement Officers Association • Incentivize cleanups of waterways and public areas through funding of scrap tire and litter reduction efforts. 2. Key Action: Provide continued assistance to local governments in developing solid waste or zoning ordinances and initiating illegal dumping enforcement programs. • Supply a model solid waste ordinance and mechanism. • Explore options, including possible allocation of disposal tax funds, to support local government funding of enforcement programs. • Explore the options to fund solid waste illegal dump cleanup operations. • Address zoning of buildings at abandoned sites, and development of local zoning and ordinance standards to deter illegal disposal activities. 3. Key Action: Encourage regional municipalities and local governments to issue demolition permits which require the proper management, tracking, and disposal of C&D wastes 4. Key Action: Evaluate the extent of illegal dumping, identify trends, and target resources to meet state reduction goals. 5. Key Action: Increase retail tire tax funding to Scrap Tire Disposal Account to prevent the cessation of county governments' tire cleanups. 6. Key Action: Explore the accounting of pumped versus disposed grease and septage with local governments. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 40 Draft: September 22, 2014 4.2 Plan Element: Materials Management Maximize material recovery, program efficiencies, and the expansion of new markets through education, funding, technical assistance, and policy initiatives. Objective 4.2.1 Identify waste for diversion Identify specific waste streams with the potential for improved material recovery and diversion and provide technical assistance and funding to support waste diversion and recovery efforts. 1. Key Action: Maximize recovery of materials from residential sources: • Work to increase the number of curbside recycling programs using cart -based collection. • Encourage residential recycling programs to expand the range of materials collected with emphasis on non -bottle plastics and cartons. • Collaborate with local government to support expanded access to curbside recycling services in unincorporated areas through local franchising and licensing, and through development of private hauler recycling services in those areas. • Support the adoption of effective multifamily recycling services by local governments. • Collaborate with industry to standardize the residential collection mix in "MRF-sheds." • Explore policy or legislative tools to broaden funding options for county recycling programs. 2. Key Action: Increase opportunities for North Carolinians to recycle away from home. 3. Key Action: Increase diversion of food waste from landfill disposal. • Allocate resources to support and promote the first local government -operated residential food waste collection programs. • Promote the diversion of food waste from supermarkets across the state. • Support development of food waste collection capacity by traditional large haulers, independent haulers, and composters. • Work with the UNC System to establish food diversion operations on all campuses. • Allocate resources to support the establishment of food waste diversion initiatives in school districts. 4. Key Action: Increase the recovery of recyclable C&D materials. • Modernize C&D permitting regulations to ensure and strengthen legitimate C&D recycling activities • Work to expand material markets for wallboard and C&D wood • Focus resources to support increased asphalt shingle recovery rates across the state. 5. Key Action: Support and encourage the adoption of "zero -waste -to -landfill" practices at industrial facilities and other locations. • Create and maintain database of manufacturers and other companies working to achieve zero - waste -to -landfill. • Provide training and direct assistance to manufacturing and other industries implementing zero -waste -to -landfill. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 41 Draft: September 22, 2014 6. Key Action: Encourage the adoption and use of source reduction programs and activities, including backyard composting, junk mail and phone book reduction, and other waste prevention techniques. 7. Key Action: Support development and implementation of State recycling policies. • Explore introduction of product stewardship legislation for paint and mercury devices. • Analyze and recommend additional disposal bans on materials with strong and consistent markets. 8. Key Action: Work to maximize the efficiency of the State's electronics recycling program. 9. Key Action: Support the collection of new materials with emerging markets such as agricultural plastics, compact fluorescent light bulbs, mattresses, and plastic film (residential/non-commercial). 10. Key Action: Work with state agencies, universities, and colleges to maximize efficiency and effectiveness of waste reduction programs. Objective 4.2.2 Improve materials management Improve material management in North Carolina through the collection, analysis, and distribution of information in key areas of waste diversion, and by engaging with key representative groups outside of North Carolina. 1. Key Action: Conduct periodic studies and analyses to support the state's solid waste and recycling planning. 2. Key Action: Participate in coordinated activities with EPA Region 4, EPA Headquarters, other states in the Southeast Region, and other entities who can improve recycling in North Carolina. 3. Key Action: Participate in discussions with brand owners, packagers, and related trade associations to encourage packaging waste reduction and industry support for improvement of recycling systems. Objective 4.2.3 Support recycling economy Support development and streamlining of the North Carolina recycling economy as well as economic initiatives in the material management and waste diversion industries. 1. Key Action: Work to improve efficiency of material movement from rural areas to MRF facilities. • Support the transition of rural convenience centers to single stream collection. • Work with rural areas to create "hub and spoke" transfer operations where appropriate and feasible. 2. Key Action: Work with industry to expand the private sector material collection infrastructure by supporting the development of independent haulers and by helping larger haulers expand recycling services. 3. Key Action: Conduct strategically targeted grant programs to develop and enhance key features of the recycling economy. • Explore ways to increase available funding for recycling grants. 4. Key Action: Increase the level of integration between collection, processing, and material end -users within North Carolina. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 42 Draft: September 22, 2014 • Hold annual recycling business fairs in North Carolina. 5. Key Action: Support the expansion of composting infrastructure throughout the state • Work with both private and public sectors to improve regional coverage of composting services and facilities. • Improve the permitting, technical assistance, and demonstration process for newly established and existing composting operations. • Encourage and promote the composting of brown grease and septage wastes through technical assistance, education and training opportunities. 6. Key Action: Encourage the development of North Carolina based markets for the recycling of scrap tires. 4.3 Plan Element: Special Waste Management Promote, educate, and regulate for the safe management and disposal of special wastes with the goal of increased re-use/recovery of these materials. Objective 4.3.1 Evaluate regulations Evaluate specific industry waste streams with evolving regulatory requirements and adjust North Carolina regulations to be responsive to the economics and environmental factors associated with these emerging industries. 1. Key Action: Align state regulations with federal standards while promoting proper management and alternative uses for CCR. • Ensure that state administrative code and forthcoming federal regulations align regarding electric power plant waste, including CCR. • Continue annual inspections of industrial landfills, and as needed CCR structural fills, to align with forthcoming regulations. • Work with NC DOT to develop construction specifications for the use of CCR in roadway and bridge construction. 2. Key Action: Evaluate the exploration waste and production waste generated from the oil and gas industry with the intent of creating waste screening protocol tailored to safeguard the landfill owners/operators and the public from environmental or health hazards associated with the processing and disposal of those wastes. • Extrapolate the expected composition of waste generated in the exploration and production of oil and gas by identifying states with similar geography and industry methods. • Evaluate waste generated during initial exploration projects, including shale cuttings, to determine composition and the possible need for adjusted regulations to further protect public health and the environment. • Communicate openly with the public and the regulated community regarding both environmental concerns, regulatory safeguards, and approved industrial practices for both disposal and processing sites. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 43 Draft: September 22, 2014 Objective 4.3.2 Reduce toxicity Expand efforts to reduce the toxicity of the disposed waste stream and to educate, develop guidance, and to increase access to collection sites to properly and economically manage wastes with unique environmental and public health hazards. 1. Key Action: Educate and communicate options for the proper management of pharmaceutical wastes. 2. Key Action: Clarify and communicate the difference between regulated medical wastes and those wastes which do not require special handling, processing, or disposal. • Develop outreach material tailored to educate medical facilities and households. 3. Key Action: Increase the number of HHW collection locations and events by focusing resources on local governments and regional agencies. 4. Key Action: Improve outreach and education regarding the hazards of nuisance tire dumps and continue to support local cleanup efforts. 5. Key Action: Clarify medical waste regulations to ensure that conditions during transportation and storage of regulated medical waste reflect current industry practices as well as best management practices. Objective 4.3.3 Improve disaster debris response Improve efficiencies and communications in managing disaster debris waste. 1. Key Action: Increase education and awareness of local governments, contracting companies and citizens that participate in clean-up efforts. 2. Key Action: Improve on post -event communication tools and procedures that will allow staff to better respond to local governments, contractors, FEMA, NC DEM, and local emergency management officials while in the field. 3. Key Action: Assist local governments in establishing disaster debris management plans and in increasing the number of Temporary Disaster Debris Storage (TDDS) sites that could be utilized during a natural disaster event. 4. Key Action: Maintain the existing emergency management debris program while increasing awareness, conducting training events, and processing additional TDDS sites within the State. 5. Key Action: Continue efforts to educate local governments, involved agencies, and private industry regarding proper disaster debris management and FEMA reimbursement practices. 6. Key Action: Explore better coordination with NC DOT on disaster debris management. 4.4 Plan Element: Customer Service/Training - Public Engagement Increase external and internal training and outreach with a focus toward customer service, public awareness, and environmentally sustainable solid waste and materials management. Objective 4.4.1 Provide assistance Provide technical assistance for the purpose of both promoting waste reduction and ensuring environmentally sound processing and management of solid waste. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 44 Draft: September 22, 2014 1. Key Action: Continue to work with local municipalities to coordinate efforts on the prevention and management of illegal dumping and pollution prevention opportunities. 2. Key Action: Provide individualized assistance to municipal and county recycling programs on technical issues, and provide broader recycling technical assistance through conferences, training sessions, and distribution of information. 3. Key Action: Continue development of internal training to ensure continual process improvement, regulatory consistency, and strong customer service along with timely and accurate technical advice to both the public and solid waste management facilities. 4. Key Action: Expand Customer Service Training initiatives and opportunities for staff. Objective 4.4.2 Implement certifications Implement operator certifications and improve facility compliance through an increased knowledge of Solid Waste Management Laws and Rules. 1. Key Action: Collaborate with the regulated community to establish qualifications and develop policies and protocols related to training procedures for certified solid waste management operator training programs. 2. Key Action: Implement a program to audit and evaluate existing certified operator courses approved by the Solid Waste Section. 3. Key Action: Recommend the solid waste industry develop new certification training for operators of solid waste management facilities: HHW collection facilities, large type compost facilities, industrial landfills, including CCR landfills. Objective 4.4.3 Develop training Develop external training and outreach programs to support education on solid waste and materials management topics. 1. Key Action: Collaborate with regulated community and other stakeholders to identify and respond to training needs. 2. Key Action: Identify accredited educational institutions that currently offer pertinent materials, courses of study, and research, to expand educational opportunities for operators of solid waste management facilities and those seeking to become knowledgeable in proper solid waste management. 3. Key Action: Identify and modify existing internal section training for external use. 4. Key Action: Maintain and expand state -level outreach campaigns aimed at increasing public recycling behavior. • Use media and other public outlets to conduct state -level recycling outreach. • Provide direct assistance to municipal and county recycling programs on the development of brochures, signage, and other outreach materials, using state campaign imagery and messages to leverage the effects of state -level outreach. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 45 Draft: September 22, 2014 5. Key Action: Expand educational venues and develop outreach materials for educating the public on illegal dumping and the benefit of local enforcement programs. 6. Key Action: Inform the septage industry through a series of training events about the benefits of composting brown grease waste and septage waste. Objective 4.4.4 Improve technology Improve technology and online resources, making information and training elements clear and easy to find. 1. Key Action: Continue with online tracking of application status and processing times of permits issued within the NC DENR Permit Application Tracker. 2. Key Action: Expand the use of GIS and online mapping to make site locations and information available to the public. 3. Key Action: Continue to improve access to facility history and records utilizing an online document database. 4. Key Action: Establish web access for training and outreach materials that serve as up-to-date resources for both external customers and staff. • Develop training and guidance materials for external customers. • Provide a calendar of training events and information on how to obtain certifications. • Outline requirements for private vendors seeking to provide Division of Waste Management - approved courses for certification and professional development. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 46 Draft: September 22, 2014 Chapter 5: Conclusion The 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan establishes a framework for the State to address past, current and future needs in solid waste and materials management. The Plan also provides objectives and key actions that not only ensure public safety and protect the environment but also deliver economic benefits. Public input is a required component of plan development and has been incorporated throughout the final document. This input, coupled with analyses of the previous plan's successes and shortcomings, formed the basis for this Plan's elements and recommended actions. In keeping with the Plan's 10-year span, all four elements have a deadline of 2024, but successful strategic plans are inherently flexible and designed to be adapted as circumstances change. As with any plan, this Plan's effectiveness rests on the state's ability to monitor outcomes and adapt as needed. Combined action from the General Assembly, the Department, local governments, the waste management industry, private businesses, and North Carolina residents will be needed to achieve the goals. The four plan elements and their associated objectives are vital to improve solid waste and materials management in North Carolina. They are also necessary to safeguard the public health and welfare. North Carolina has achieved a great deal in its last 10 years of solid waste and materials management. The Plan sets the path for another 10 years of safe and successful solid waste and materials management. 2014-2024 North Carolina Solid Waste and Materials Management Plan 47