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AQ_AM_20230628_BP_AnnPln_Final 2023-2024 Volume 2-E Fayetteville Region_Final 2023-2024 Annual Monitoring Network Plan for the North Carolina Division of Air Quality Volume 2 Site Descriptions by Division of Air Quality Regional Office and Metropolitan Statistical Area E. The Fayetteville Monitoring Region June 28, 2023 E2 Table of Contents List of Figures ................................................................................................................................................ 2 List of Tables .................................................................................................................................................. 3 E. The Fayetteville Monitoring Region ........................................................................................................... 4 (1) The Non-MSA Portion of the Fayetteville Monitoring Region .............................................................. 4 (2) The Fayetteville MSA ............................................................................................................................ 7 (a) The Honeycutt School site ............................................................................................................. 9 (b) The Wade School site .................................................................................................................. 11 (c) The William Owen School site ..................................................................................................... 15 Appendix E.1 Annual Network Site Review Forms for 2022 ........................................................................ 20 List of Figures Figure E1. The Fayetteville monitoring region. The dots show the approximate locations of most of the monitoring sites in this region. ..................................................................................................................... 4 Figure E2. Location of the Candor monitoring site. A is the Candor fine particle, air toxic and CASTNET monitoring site. The circle approximates the neighborhood scale, 0.5 to 4 kilometers (km)...................... 4 Figure E3. The Candor air toxics shelter and rainwater collection sampler ................................................. 6 Figure E4. The Candor particle monitors, rainwater collection sampler, shelter, and meteorological tower ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Figure E5. The Candor mercury deposition monitor and rain gauge............................................................ 7 Figure E6. Looking north from the Candor site ............................................................................................. 7 Figure E7. Looking east from the Candor site ............................................................................................... 7 Figure E8. Looking west from the Candor site .............................................................................................. 7 Figure E9. Looking south from the Candor site ............................................................................................ 7 Figure E10. Monitors located in the Fayetteville MSA ................................................................................. 8 Figure E11. Location of Honeycutt site, B, relative to Golfview, A ............................................................... 9 Figure E12. Honeycutt ozone and sulfur dioxide monitoring site, 37-051-0010 ........................................ 10 Figure E13. Looking north from the Honeycutt site ................................................................................... 10 Figure E14. Looking east from the Honeycutt site ...................................................................................... 10 Figure E15. Looking west from the Honeycutt site ..................................................................................... 10 Figure E16. Looking south from the Honeycutt site ................................................................................... 10 Figure E17. Wade School ozone monitoring Site, 37-051-0011 ................................................................. 12 Figure E18. Looking north from Wade School site...................................................................................... 12 Figure E19. Looking east from the Wade School site ................................................................................. 12 Figure E20. Looking west from the Wade School site ................................................................................ 13 Figure E21. Looking south from the Wade School site ............................................................................... 13 Figure E22. Location of Wade School site relative to the Wade site .......................................................... 14 E3 Figure E23. Aerial view of the Wade School site ........................................................................................ 15 Figure E24. The William Owen particle monitoring site ............................................................................. 15 Figure E25. William Owen site looking north ............................................................................................. 16 Figure E26. William Owen site looking northwest ...................................................................................... 16 Figure E27. William Owen Site looking northeast ...................................................................................... 17 Figure E28. William Owen site looking east ................................................................................................ 17 Figure E29. William Owen site looking west ............................................................................................... 17 Figure E30. William Owen Site looking southwest ..................................................................................... 17 Figure E31. William Owen site looking southeast....................................................................................... 17 Figure E32. William Owen site looking south ............................................................................................. 17 Figure E33. Fort Liberty Lead and Lead Compound Releases to the Air from 2009 to 2020 ...................... 18 List of Tables Table E1. Site Information Table for Candor................................................................................................. 5 Table E2. Site Information Table for Honeycutt ......................................................................................... 11 Table E3. Site Information Table for Wade ................................................................................................. 13 Table E4. Site Information Table for William Owen School ........................................................................ 16 E4 E. The Fayetteville Monitoring Region The Fayetteville monitoring region, shown in Figure E1, consists of three sections: (1) the non- Metropolitan Statistical Area, or MSA, portion of the Fayetteville monitoring region - Bladen, Montgomery, Moore, Richmond, Robeson, Sampson and Scotland counties; (2) the Fayetteville MSA - Cumberland, Harnett and Hoke Counties; and (3) the southeastern portion of the Charlotte-Gastonia-Concord MSA - Anson County, previously discussed as part of the Mooresville Monitoring Region in Section C. Figure E1. The Fayetteville monitoring region. The dots show the approximate locations of most of the monitoring sites in this region. (1) The Non-MSA Portion of the Fayetteville Monitoring Region The non-MSA portion of the Fayetteville monitoring region contains seven counties: Bladen, Montgomery, Moore, Richmond, Robeson, Sampson and Scotland. It has no MSAs. The Southern Pines- Pinehurst Micropolitan Statistical Area (MiSA) is in Moore County. The Lumberton MiSA is in Robeson County. The North Carolina Division of Air Quality, or DAQ, currently operates one monitoring site in this area of the Sand Hills at Candor in Montgomery County. The location of the Candor monitoring site is shown in Figure E2. Figure E2. Location of the Candor monitoring site. A is the Candor fine particle, air toxic and CASTNET monitoring site. The circle approximates the neighborhood scale, 0.5 to 4 kilometers (km). At the Candor site, DAQ operates a continuous fine particle beta attenuation monitor, or BAM; a rotating every-third-year PM10 monitor; air toxics volatile organic compound and carbonyl monitors; a rainwater collection sampler; and ambient temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction sensors. DAQ also operates a weekly mercury deposition monitor at this site to measure total mercury, Hg, concentration and deposition in precipitation. Table E1 summarizes monitoring information for the site. Figure E3 through Figure E9 show the site and views looking north, E5 east, south and west. The Candor site is collocated with a clear air status and trends network, CASTNET, site. Table E1. Site Information Table for Candor Site Name: Candor AQS Site Identification Number 37-123-0001 Location: 136 Perry Drive, Candor, North Carolina CBSA: Not in a CBSA CBSA #: 00000 Elevation 173.1 meters Latitude 35.263165 Longitude -79.836636 Datum: NAD83 Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule PM 2.5 local conditions, BAM Met One BAM-1020 Mass Monitor w/VSCC, 170 EQPM-0308-170 1-hour Year-round PM10 total 0- 10µm STP Met One Beta Attenuation BAM-1020, 122 EQPM-0798-122 1-hour Year-round, every third year Volatile organic compounds SS 6L- pressurized canister w/ cryogenic preconcentration: GC/MS, 150 Not applicable 24-hour Every sixth day, year-round Carbonyl compounds Silica-DNPH-CART-KI O3 Scrub HPLC, 202 Not applicable 24-hour Every sixth day, year-round Date Monitor Established PM 2.5 local conditions, continuous monitor, BAM Aug. 1, 2013 PM10 total 0-10µm STP, primary monitor Feb. 16, 2011 Volatile organic compounds Jan. 26, 2002 Carbonyl compounds July 3, 2013 Nearest Road: McCallum Rd Traffic Count: 250 Year of Count: 2021 Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose PM 2.5 local conditions, BAM 1079 meters North northeast SLAMS Real-time data reporting. AQI reporting. PM10 total 0-10µm STP 1079 meters North northeast Special purpose Prevention of significant deterioration, PSD, modeling Volatile organic compounds 1079 meters North northeast Non-regulatory General background monitor Carbonyl compounds 1079 meters North northeast Non-regulatory General background monitor Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable for Comparison to NAAQS Proposal to Move or Change PM 2.5 local conditions, BAM General background; welfare related impacts Regional Yes Will change to a BAM 1022 in summer 2023 PM10 total 0-10µm STP General background Regional Yes None Volatile organic compounds General background Regional Not applicable Monitoring Suspended 2/6/2023 Carbonyl compounds General background Regional Not applicable None Parameter Name Meets Part 58 Requirements for: Appendix A Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E PM 2.5 local conditions, BAM Yes Yes Yes- required background site Yes PM10 total 0-10µm STP Yes Yes Yes – not required Yes E6 Table E1. Site Information Table for Candor Volatile organic compounds Yes Not applicable Yes – not required Yes Carbonyl compounds Yes Not applicable Yes – not required Yes Parameter Name Probe Height in meters Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles PM 2.5 local conditions, BAM 2.46 > 2 meters >20 meters None PM10 total 0-10um STP 3.17 2.87 meters >20 meters None Volatile organic compounds 3.91 1.117 meters > 20 meters None Carbonyl compounds 3.91 1.117 meters > 20 meters None Each CASTNET dry deposition station measures: • Weekly average atmospheric concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, sulfur dioxide and nitric acid; and • Hourly concentrations of ambient ozone levels. The CASTNET meteorological equipment was transferred to the division in 2012. The Candor site is located on the eastern edge of the Uwharrie National Forest. In 2013, DAQ added a BAM and a one-in-six-day carbonyl sampler to support a background monitoring study. July 1, 2015, the BAM became the primary monitor at the site when DAQ shut down the FRM. Currently, DAQ has been forced to suspend the VOC portion of the UAT program due to staffing issues at the Reedy Creek Analysis Laboratory. This suspension of the VOC program began in February of 2023 and is expected to continue for the remainder of the year. DAQ hopes to reestablish the program in 2024 when staffing and training issues are resolved. DAQ continues to operate the UAT Aldehydes program. Figure E3. The Candor air toxics shelter and rainwater collection sampler Figure E4. The Candor particle monitors, rainwater collection sampler, shelter, and meteorological tower E7 Figure E5. The Candor mercury deposition monitor and rain gauge Figure E6. Looking north from the Candor site Figure E7. Looking east from the Candor site Figure E8. Looking west from the Candor site Figure E9. Looking south from the Candor site There are no new monitoring requirements that will require additional monitoring in this area. (2) The Fayetteville MSA The Fayetteville MSA consists of three counties: Cumberland, Harnett and Hoke. The major urban area is the City of Fayetteville. In July 2021, the U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, estimated 524,588 E8 people lived here.1 DAQ currently operates three monitoring sites in the Fayetteville MSA. These sites are all located in Cumberland County at William H. Owen Elementary School, E. Melvin Honeycutt Elementary School in Fayetteville and at District 7 Elementary School. The division shut down the Golfview site in Hope Mills on Oct. 31, 2014, and moved the Wade site to Wade School on March 1, 2022. The locations of these monitors are shown in Figure E10. Figure E10. Monitors located in the Fayetteville MSA 1 Source: Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2021 (CBSA-MET-EST2021-POP), U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, Released March 2022, available online at https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/popest/2020s- total-metro-and-micro-statistical-areas.html. E9 (a) The Honeycutt School site At the Honeycutt site, DAQ operates a seasonal ozone monitor and a special purpose sulfur dioxide monitor that operates for 12 months every three years. DAQ established this site in April 2015. The division discovered in February 2014 that the golf course where the Golfview monitoring station was located was closed and the property where the monitor was located was for sale. The property owner agreed to allow DAQ to continue using the site until the property sold. The property sold in August 2014 and the new owner requested DAQ move the monitoring station as soon as possible. The division investigated surrounding properties to identify a potential location for the monitoring station. The property abuts YMCA property on one side and city property on the other. DAQ considered relocating the monitoring station about 100 meters southeast to the YMCA property, however, the YMCA never responded to the request. Thus, the division worked with the school system to move the site to E. Melvin Honeycutt Elementary School at 4665 Lakewood Drive, Fayetteville, North Carolina. As shown in Figure E11, the school is located about 3.2 kilometers northwest of the former Golfview location. Figure E11. Location of Honeycutt site, B, relative to Golfview, A Figure E12 through Figure E16 show the site and views looking north, east, south and west. Table E2 summarizes monitoring information for the site. The Honeycutt ozone site is the upwind site for the Fayetteville MSA. Sulfur dioxide monitoring occurs here every third year because the site is a good background site for obtaining data for Prevention of Significant Deterioration modeling requirements. This sulfur-dioxide monitor operated from March 15, 2021, through March 31, 2022. E10 Figure E12. Honeycutt ozone and sulfur dioxide monitoring site, 37-051-0010 Figure E13. Looking north from the Honeycutt site Figure E14. Looking east from the Honeycutt site Figure E15. Looking west from the Honeycutt site Figure E16. Looking south from the Honeycutt site E11 Table E2. Site Information Table for Honeycutt Site Name: Honeycutt AQS Site Identification Number: 37-051-0010 Location: 4665 Lakewood Drive, Fayetteville, North Carolina CBSA: Fayetteville, NC CBSA #: 22180 Latitude 35.00165 Longitude -78.99075 Datum: WGS84 Elevation 59.1 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule Ozone Instrumental with ultraviolet photometry, 047 EQOA-0880-047 1-Hour March 1 to Oct. 31 Sulfur dioxide Instrumental with pulsed fluorescence, 060 EQSA-0486-060 1-Hour Year-round; every third year Date Monitor Established: Ozone May 9, 2015 Sulfur dioxide May 9, 2015 Nearest Road: Fisher Road Traffic Count: 9,500 Year of Count: 2021 Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose Ozone 43 meters North northeast SLAMS Real-time AQI reporting and forecasting. Compliance w/NAAQS. Sulfur dioxide 43 meters North northeast Special purpose Prevention of significant deterioration, PSD, modeling Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable for Comparison to NAAQS Proposal to Move or Change Ozone Population exposure Neighborhood Yes None Sulfur dioxide Population exposure General background Neighborhood Yes Will start 1/1/2024 and operate to 12/31/2024 Parameter Name Meets Part 58 Appendix A Requirements Meets Part 58 Appendix C Requirements Meets Part 58 Appendix D Requirements Meets Part 58 Appendix E Requirements Ozone Yes Yes Yes Yes Sulfur dioxide Yes Yes Yes - Not required Yes Parameter Name Probe Height in meters Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles Ozone 4.26 meters 1.2 meters >20 meters None Sulfur dioxide 4.22 meters 1.5 meters >20 meters None Because 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D requires MSAs with more than 350,000 people to have two ozone monitors, this site is the second required ozone site for the Fayetteville MSA. (b) The Wade School site At the Wade School site, DAQ operates a seasonal ozone monitor. A picture of the site as well as views looking north, east, south, and west are provided in Figure E17 through Figure E21. Table E3 summarizes monitoring information for the site. E12 Figure E17. Wade School ozone monitoring Site, 37-051-0011 Figure E18. Looking north from Wade School site Figure E19. Looking east from the Wade School site E13 Figure E20. Looking west from the Wade School site Figure E21. Looking south from the Wade School site Table E3. Site Information Table for Wade Site Name: Wade School AQS Site Identification Number: 37-051-0011 Location: 5721 Smithfield Road, Wade, North Carolina CBSA: Fayetteville, NC CBSA #: 22180 Latitude 35.1487 Longitude -78.7068 Datum: WGS84 Elevation 48 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule Ozone Instrumental with ultraviolet photometry, 047 EQOA-0880-047 1-Hour March 1 to Oct. 31 Date Monitor Established: Ozone March 1, 2022 Nearest Road: Smithfield Road Traffic Count: 850 Year of Count: 2021 Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose Ozone 81 meters Southeast SLAMS Compliance w/NAAQS. Real-time AQI reporting & forecasting. Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable for Comparison to NAAQS Proposal to Move or Change Ozone Highest concentration Urban Yes None Parameter Name Meets 40 CFR Part 58 Requirements for: Appendix A Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Ozone Yes Yes Yes Yes Parameter Name Probe Height in meters Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles Ozone 4.40 1.2 meter >20 meters None North Carolina established a site at Armstrong School in Eastover (37-051-0001) on March 1, 1981, as the downwind site for the Fayetteville MSA. On May 8, 1990, the site was relocated to 7112 Covington Lane in Wade (37-051-0008). In October 2019, the DAQ evaluated the Wade site to see if it still met the siting criteria in Appendix E to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 58. The Wade site was surrounded by trees on three sides. The site barely met the 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix E siting requirements. Because DAQ planned to replace the monitoring shelter at the site, the DAQ decided to move the site to District 7 Elementary School. The new site at District 7 Elementary School is 2.23 kilometers southeast of the Wade site as shown in Figure E22. The Cumberland County Board of Education agreed to this location on Feb. 11, 2020. E14 Figure E22. Location of Wade School site relative to the Wade site Mr. Mark Whitley, Executive Director for Cumberland County Schools, at District 7 Elementary School, approved placing the relocated Wade monitor inside the fence where the old pump house is as shown in Figure E23. The DAQ posted a network plan addendum on the Department of Environmental Quality Division of Air Quality website for public comment for 30 days from Feb. 25 to March 26, 2020, and submitted it to the EPA on April 1, 2020.2 The DAQ did not receive any public comments on the request to relocate the Wade site. The Wade School site was established and started operating on March 1, 2022. 2 North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality 2019-2020 Final Network Monitoring Plan, Volume 1, Addendum 1. Wade Relocation Siting Analysis and Site Information, Available on the worldwide web at http://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/documents/DocsSearch.do?dispatch=download&documentId=12992. E15 Figure E23. Aerial view of the Wade School site (c) The William Owen School site At the William Owen site, DAQ operates continuous fine particle and PM10 monitors. Figure E24 shows the site. Table E4 summarizes monitoring information for the site. Views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west, and northwest are provided in Figure E25 through Figure E32. The meteorological tower with wind speed and wind direction sensors, ambient temperature sensors at 10 meters and 2 meters, and rainfall and solar radiation sensors was shut down on Nov. 12, 2014. In mid- January 2016, the collocated high-volume PM10 monitors at the site were shut down and replaced with a low-volume continuous PM10 monitor. At the end of 2015 the well-impactor ninety-six, WINS, on the FRM was replaced with a very sharp cut cyclone, VSCC. This change was made because the VSCC is easier and less expensive to maintain. In mid-2017, a one-in-six-day collocated fine particle FRM was added to the site. At the end of 2019, the division shut down the two fine-particle FRMs at the site. Figure E24. The William Owen particle monitoring site E16 Table E4. Site Information Table for William Owen School Site Name: William Owen School AQS Site Identification Number 37-051-0009 Location: 4533 Raeford Road, Fayetteville, North Carolina CBSA: Fayetteville, NC CBSA #: 22180 Latitude 35.041416 Longitude -78.953112 Datum: WGS84 Elevation 63 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule PM 2.5 local conditions, BAM Met One BAM-1022 Mass Monitor w/ VSCC EQPM-1013-209 1-Hour Year-round PM10 total 0-10µm STP, primary Met One Beta Attenuation BAM-1020 EQPM-0798-122 1-Hour Year-round Date Monitor Established: PM 2.5 local conditions, continuous monitor Dec. 30, 2015 PM10 total 0-10µm STP, primary monitor Jan. 1, 1999 Nearest Road: Raeford Road Traffic Count: 43,500 Year of Count: 2021 Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose PM 2.5 local conditions, continuous 210 meters North SLAMS Real-time AQI reporting & forecasting PM10 total 0-10µm STP, primary 210 meters North SLAMS Compliance w/NAAQS Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable for NAAQS Comparison Proposal to Move or Change PM 2.5 local conditions, continuous Population exposure Urban Yes None PM10 total 0-10µm STP, primary Population exposure Urban Yes None Parameter Name Meets Part 58 Requirements for: Appendix A Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E PM 2.5 local conditions, continuous Yes Yes Yes Yes PM10 total 0-10µm STP, primary Yes Yes Yes Yes Parameter Name Probe Height in meters Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles PM 2.5 local conditions, continuous 4.666 > 2 meters >20 meters None PM10 total 0-10µm STP, primary 2.64 2.38 >20 meters None Figure E25. William Owen site looking north Figure E26. William Owen site looking northwest E17 Figure E27. William Owen Site looking northeast Figure E28. William Owen site looking east Figure E29. William Owen site looking west Figure E30. William Owen Site looking southwest Figure E31. William Owen site looking southeast Figure E32. William Owen site looking south Additional monitoring could be required in the Fayetteville MSA to comply with the 2010 lead monitoring requirements,3 as revised in 2016 4. In 2013, Fort Liberty (formerly Fort Bragg) reported over 0.5 tons of fugitive lead emissions in the TRI, as shown in Figure E33. Calculation of the 2014 fugitive 3 Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements, Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 247, Monday, Dec. 27, 2010, p. 81126, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-27/pdf/2010- 32153.pdf#page=1. 4 Revisions to Ambient Monitoring Quality Assurance and Other Requirements, Federal Register, Vol. 81, No. 59, Monday, March 28, 2016, p. 17248, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2016- 03-28/pdf/2016-06226.pdf. E18 lead emissions using AP-42 emission factors resulted in 2014 emissions of less than 0.5 tons. 5 Thus, in 2015, DAQ requested a waiver from lead monitoring at Fort Liberty. The EPA did not grant the waiver because the lead emissions were less than 0.5 tons. As shown in Figure E33, in 2018, Fort Liberty again reported over 0.5 tons of fugitive lead emissions in the TRI.6 As a result, DAQ requested a waiver for monitoring at the facility.7 Figure E33. Fort Liberty Lead and Lead Compound Releases to the Air from 2009 to 2020 In its response to the 2020-2021 network plan,8 the EPA agreed with the rationale DAQ provided; however, the EPA asked to work with DAQ and Fort Liberty to further determine if base activities have the potential to cause elevated ambient lead concentrations. Thus, the EPA neither required lead monitoring nor granted a waiver of lead monitoring requirements for the area near Fort Liberty. Instead, the EPA requested that DAQ work with the EPA to provide supplemental information in the next network plan on whether Fort Liberty would be expected to potentially contribute to elevated lead concentrations. DAQ met internally after receiving EPA’s request and determined DAQ has done all it has the authority to do regarding monitoring at Fort Liberty. DAQ will provide the EPA with all the 5 United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2014 Toxic Release Inventory, released March 2015, available on the worldwide web at https://iaspub.epa.gov/triexplorer/tri_release.chemical. 6 Data obtained from the 2020 EPA Toxics Release Inventory Tracker available at https://edap.epa.gov/public/extensions/TRIToxicsTracker/TRIToxicsTracker.html# 7 2020-2021 Annual Monitoring Network Plan for the North Carolina Division of Air Quality, Volume 1, July 2, 2020, Section II.G.2, https://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/documents/DocsSearch.do?dispatch=download&documentId=14029 (accessed May 5, 2021). 8 United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2020-2021 State of North Carolina Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan, The U. S. EPA Region 4 Comments and Recommendations, p14, available at https://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/documents/DocsSearch.do?dispatch=download&documentId=13593 E19 information obtained to date on lead emissions and modeling for lead at Fort Liberty via a separate document. There are no other new or existing monitoring requirements that will require additional monitoring in this area. E20 Appendix E.1 Annual Network Site Review Forms for 2022 Candor Honeycutt Wade School William Owen in Fayetteville E21 E22 E23 E24 E25 E26 E27 E28