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AQ_AM_20230628_BP_AnnPln_Final 2023-2024 Volume 2-B Winston-Salem Region_Final 2023-2024 Annual Monitoring Network Plan for the North Carolina Division of Air Quality Volume 2 Site Descriptions by Division of Air Quality Regional Office and Metropolitan Statistical Area B. The Winston-Salem Monitoring Region June 28, 2023 B2 Table of Contents Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................................... 2 List of Figures ................................................................................................................................................ 2 List of Tables .................................................................................................................................................. 3 The Winston-Salem Monitoring Region ........................................................................................................ 4 (1) The Eastern Mountains ........................................................................................................................ 4 (2) The Winston-Salem MSA ...................................................................................................................... 5 (3) The Greensboro-High Point MSA ....................................................................................................... 11 (4) The Burlington MSA ........................................................................................................................... 22 (5) Caswell County ................................................................................................................................... 23 Appendix B.1 Annual Network Site Review Forms for 2022 ........................................................................ 28 List of Figures Figure B1. The Winston-Salem monitoring region 4 Figure B2. Lead and lead compound air emissions in the eastern mountains from 2009 to 2020 5 Figure B3. Location of monitoring sites in the Winston-Salem MSA 6 Figure B4. Lexington water tower fine particle monitoring site, 37-057-0002 6 Figure B5. Looking north from Lexington site 7 Figure B6. Looking northwest from Lexington site 7 Figure B7. Looking northeast from Lexington site 7 Figure B8. Looking east from Lexington site 7 Figure B9. Looking west from Lexington site 8 Figure B10. Looking southwest from Lexington site 8 Figure B11. Looking southeast from the Lexington site 8 Figure B12. Looking south from Lexington site 8 Figure B13. Lead and lead compound emissions to the air in the Winston-Salem MSA from 2009 to 2020 10 Figure B14. Location of monitors in the Greensboro-High Point MSA 11 Figure B15. Mendenhall ozone, particle and rainwater monitoring site, 37-081-0013 12 Figure B16. Looking north from the Mendenhall site 13 Figure B17. Looking northwest from the Mendenhall site 13 Figure B18. The Mendenhall site looking northeast 13 Figure B19. Looking east from the Mendenhall site 13 Figure B20. Looking west from the Mendenhall site 14 Figure B21. Looking southwest from the Mendenhall site 14 Figure B22. Looking southeast from the Mendenhall site 14 Figure B23. Looking south from the Mendenhall site 14 Figure B24. Comparison of the beta attenuation monitor with the federal reference monitor at Mendenhall 16 B3 Figure B25. Bethany ozone and sulfur dioxide monitoring site, 37-157-0099 17 Figure B26. Looking north from the Bethany site 17 Figure B27. Looking west from the Bethany site 17 Figure B28. Looking east from the Bethany site 17 Figure B29. Looking south from the Bethany site 17 Figure B30. Location of the Bethany ozone site in relation to nearby emission sources 19 Figure B31. Location of new facility relative to the existing Bethany ozone and sulfur dioxide monitoring station 20 Figure B32. Lead and lead compounds emitted in the Greensboro-High Point MSA from 2009 to 2020 21 Figure B33. Lead air emissions in Alamance County from 2009 to 2020 23 Figure B34. Locations of ozone monitors near the Burlington MSA. 23 Figure B35. Location of the Cherry Grove monitoring site 24 Figure B36. Cherry Grove ozone and particle monitoring Site, 37-033-0001 24 Figure B37. Looking north from Cherry Grove site 25 Figure B38. Looking northeast from Cherry Grove site 25 Figure B39. Looking west from Cherry Grove site 26 Figure B40. Looking southwest from Cherry Grove site 26 Figure B41. Looking east from Cherry Grove site 26 Figure B42. Looking south from Cherry Grove site 26 List of Tables Table B1. Site Table for Lexington 9 Table B2. Site Table for Mendenhall 15 Table B3. Site Table for Bethany 18 Table B4. Site Table for Cherry Grove 25 B4 The Winston-Salem Monitoring Region The Winston-Salem monitoring region of North Carolina, shown in Figure B1, consists of five sections: (1) the eastern mountains - Alleghany, Ashe, Surry, Watauga and Wilkes counties; (2) the Winston-Salem metropolitan statistical area, or MSA - Davidson, Davie, Forsyth, Stokes and Yadkin counties; (3) the Greensboro MSA - Guilford, Randolph and Rockingham counties; (4) the Burlington MSA - Alamance County; and (5) Caswell County. Figure B1. The Winston-Salem monitoring region The red dots show the approximate locations of most of the monitoring sites in this region. (1) The Eastern Mountains The eastern mountains consist of five counties: Alleghany, Ashe, Surry, Watauga and Wilkes. There are no major metropolitan areas in this section of North Carolina. The Boone micropolitan statistical area, or MiSA, is in Watauga County, the Mount Airy MiSA is in Surry County, and the North Wilkesboro MiSA is in Wilkes County. The North Carolina Division of Air Quality, or DAQ, does not operate any monitoring sites in the eastern mountains. DAQ shut down the fine-particle monitoring site located at Boone in Watauga County on Dec. 31, 2015. In 2010, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA, finalized changes to the expanded lead-monitoring network established in 2008 to support the lower lead national ambient air quality standard, or NAAQS, of 0.15 micrograms per cubic meter. 1 In 2010, the EPA focused monitoring efforts on fence-line monitoring located at facilities that emit 0.5 ton or more of lead per year, at urban national core, NCore, monitoring sites and at selected airports. 2 In 2016, the EPA removed the requirement for monitoring at NCore sites.3 As shown in Figure B2, the eastern mountains do not have any permitted facilities emitting 0.5 ton or more per year of lead,4 or any of the selected airports. Thus, the changes to the lead monitoring network requirements did not result in any lead monitoring in the eastern mountains. 1 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead, Federal Register, Vol. 73, No. 219, \ Wednesday, Nov. 12, 2008, p. 66964, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2008-11-12/pdf/E8-25654.pdf. 2 Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements, Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 247, Monday, Dec. 27, 2010, p. 81126, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-27/pdf/2010- 32153.pdf#page=1. 3 Revisions to Ambient Monitoring Quality Assurance and Other Requirements, Federal Register, Vol. 81, No. 59, Monday, March 28, 2016, p. 17248, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2016- 03-28/pdf/2016-06226.pdf. 4 United States Environmental Protection Agency. The 2020 EPA Toxics Release Inventory Tracker available at https://edap.epa.gov/public/extensions/TRIToxicsTracker/TRIToxicsTracker.html#. B5 Figure B2. Lead and lead compound air emissions in the eastern mountains from 2009 to 2020 The 2015 ozone-monitoring requirements did not result in additional ozone monitoring in the eastern mountains. 5 This area does not have any MSAs requiring a minimum number of monitors by 40 Code of Federal Regulations, or CFR, Part 58, Appendix D for population exposure monitoring in urban areas. The eastern mountains did not need to add monitors to comply with the 2010 nitrogen dioxide monitoring requirements.6 The area is too small to require area-wide monitors and does not have any roadways with average annual daily traffic above the threshold for near-roadway monitoring. The eastern mountain area also did not need additional monitors to meet the 2010 sulfur dioxide monitoring requirements because there are no large sources of sulfur dioxide emissions located within the area.7 The EPA does not require this area to operate near-road carbon monoxide and fine particle monitors because the population is under 1,000,000. 8 (2) The Winston-Salem MSA The Winston-Salem MSA consists of five counties: Davidson, Davie, Forsyth, Stokes and Yadkin. The major urban area is Winston-Salem. DAQ currently operates one monitoring site in the Winston-Salem MSA and the Forsyth County Office of Environmental Assistance and Protection, or Forsyth County, 5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone, Final Rule, Federal Register, Vol. 80, No. 206, Oct. 26, 2015, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-10-26/pdf/2015-26594.pdf, accessed on May 7, 2017. 6 Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide, Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 26, Feb. 9, 2010, available on the worldwide web at https://www3.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/nox/fr/20100209.pdf. 7 North Carolina Point Source Emission Report, available online at https://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/ToxicsReportServlet?ibeam=true&year=2016&physical=byCounty&overridetype=All& toxics=264&sortorder=103. Access May 1, 2018. 8 “Appendix D to Part 58—Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring,” 4.2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Design Criteria, 4.2.1 General Requirements, available at https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi- bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&r=PART&n=40y6.0.1.1.6#ap40.6.58_161.d, accessed on April 22, 2017. B6 operates three. These sites are located at Lexington in Davidson County and Clemmons, Union Cross and Hattie Avenue in Winston-Salem in Forsyth County. Figure B3 displays the locations of these monitors. Volume 1, Appendix C discusses the Forsyth County sites and monitors. This subsection only discusses the DAQ site. Figure B3. Location of monitoring sites in the Winston-Salem MSA At the Lexington site, 37-057-0002, DAQ operates a one-in-six-day fine particle FRM monitor and a continuous fine particle monitor. The division shut down the Met One Super SASS and URG monitors in January 2015 when the EPA stopped funding them. Figure B4 shows the site. Figure B5 through Figure B12 provides views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest. Table B1 summarizes monitoring information for the site. Figure B4. Lexington water tower fine particle monitoring site, 37-057-0002 Hattie Avenue is a multi-pollutant site; Union Cross is an ozone site; Clemmons School is an ozone and fine particle site; and Lexington is a fine particle site. The circles represent the scale (4 km). B7 Figure B5. Looking north from Lexington site Figure B6. Looking northwest from Lexington site Figure B7. Looking northeast from Lexington site Figure B8. Looking east from Lexington site B8 Figure B9. Looking west from Lexington site Figure B10. Looking southwest from Lexington site Figure B11. Looking southeast from the Lexington site Figure B12. Looking south from Lexington site B9 Table B1. Site Table for Lexington Site Name: Lexington AQS Site Identification Number 37-057-0002 Location: 938 South Salisbury Street, Lexington, North Carolina CBSA: Winston-Salem, NC CBSA #: 49180 Latitude 35.8145 Longitude -80.2627 Datum: WGS84 Elevation 241 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule PM 2.5 local conditions, secondary R & P Model 2025i PM-2.5 Sequential Air Sampler w/VSCC – Gravimetric Analysis RFPS-1006- 145 24-Hour Every sixth day, year-round PM 2.5 local conditions, primary Met One BAM-1020 Mass Monitor w/VSCC, 170 EQPM-0308- 170 1-Hour Hourly, year- round Date Monitor Established: PM 2.5 local conditions, secondary monitor Jan. 1, 1999 PM 2.5 local conditions, primary continuous monitor July 22, 2014 Nearest Road: South Main Street Traffic Count: 13471 Year of Count: 2021 Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose PM 2.5 local conditions, collocated 30 meters East SLAMS Collocated QA monitor to meet Appendix A requirements for BAM 1020 monitors. PM 2.5 local conditions, primary 30 meters East SLAMS Required for demonstration of maintenance. Compliance w/NAAQS. Real- time AQI reporting & forecasting. Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable for Comparison to NAAQS Proposal to Move or Change PM 2.5 local conditions, collocated Population exposure Neighborhood Yes None PM 2.5 local conditions, primary Population exposure Neighborhood Yes None Parameter Name Meets Part 58 Requirements for: Appendix A Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E PM 2.5 local conditions, collocated Yes Yes Yes - Not required Yes PM 2.5 local conditions, primary Yes Yes Yes - Not required Yes Parameter Name Probe Height in meters Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles PM 2.5 local conditions, collocated 2.4 2.1 meters >20 meters None PM 2.5 local conditions, primary 2.4 2.1 meters >20 meters None On Jan. 1, 2016, DAQ made the continuous fine particle monitor at the site the primary monitor to provide a collocated beta attenuation monitor, BAM 1020, and federal reference method, FRM, monitor site. A collocated BAM 1020 – FRM site was necessary to meet 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix A requirements. On Jan. 1, 2017, the division added a second FRM to the site to provide a second FRM- FRM collocated site, if needed to meet 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix A requirements. However, the primary quality assurance organization did not operate enough primary FRMs to make a second FRM-FRM site necessary. Thus, DAQ continues to operate the BAM 1020 monitor as the primary monitor at the site and moved the collocated FRM to another site to replace the collocated FRM-FRM site at the Board of Education in Asheville. On July 1, 2018, the division reduced the sampling schedule for the FRM to one- in-six-day. B10 In 2014, DAQ shut down the seasonal ozone monitor at Mocksville, 37-059-0003, because 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D no longer required the division to operate it. In 2015, the Forsyth County local program shut down the Peters Creek carbon monoxide monitor and the Shiloh Church ozone monitor. The state implementation plans no longer required the carbon monoxide monitor to demonstrate compliance with the carbon monoxide standard and the ozone monitor was not required by 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D. The 2010 changes to the lead monitoring requirements did not require lead monitoring in the Winston- Salem MSA. 9 As shown in Figure B13, the Winston-Salem MSA does not have any permitted facilities emitting more than 0.5 ton per year of lead.10 Figure B13. Lead and lead compound emissions to the air in the Winston-Salem MSA from 2009 to 2020 Starting in 2017, the 2015 changes to the ozone monitoring requirements lengthened the monitoring season so that it begins on March 1 instead of April 1. 11 The ozone monitoring changes did not result in additional monitors in the Winston-Salem MSA. This MSA already exceeds the minimum number of monitors required by 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D for population exposure monitoring in urban areas. To comply with the 2010 nitrogen dioxide monitoring requirements, 12 based on the monitoring rules finalized on March 7, 2013, the Winston-Salem MSA was required to add a monitor by Jan. 1, 2017, 9 Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements, Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 247, Monday, Dec. 27, 2010, p. 81126, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-27/pdf/2010- 32153.pdf#page=1. 10 United States Environmental Protection Agency. The 2020 EPA Toxics Release Inventory Tracker available at https://edap.epa.gov/public/extensions/TRIToxicsTracker/TRIToxicsTracker.html#. 11 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone, Final Rule, Federal Register, Vol. 80, No. 206, Oct. 26, 2015, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-10-26/pdf/2015-26594.pdf, accessed on May 7, 2017. 12 Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide, Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 26, Feb. 9, 2010, available on the worldwide web at https://www3.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/nox/fr/20100209.pdf. B11 because the MSA population exceeded the 500,000-threshold. However, on Dec. 30, 2016, the EPA removed the requirement to establish near-road NO2 monitoring stations in core based statistical areas, or CBSAs, having populations between 500,000 and 1,000,000 persons.13 Currently, the MSA is too small to require area-wide monitors. The EPA designated the existing nitrogen dioxide monitor at Hattie Avenue as one of the monitors required by the administrator to represent vulnerable populations. The Winston-Salem MSA did not need to add sulfur dioxide monitors to comply with the 2010 sulfur dioxide monitoring requirements. In August 2012, the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, OAQPS, calculated, based on a revised 2008 emission inventory, that population weighted emission index, PWEI, monitoring was not required in the MSA. Source-oriented monitoring was also not required at the Belews Creek Steam Station in Stokes County because the facility showed by modeling that the ambient air near the facility meets the 2010 standard. The changes to the monitoring requirements also did not require this area to operate near-road carbon monoxide and fine particle monitors because the population is under 1,000,000. 14 (3) The Greensboro-High Point MSA The Greensboro-High Point MSA consists of three counties: Guilford, Randolph and Rockingham. The major urban areas are the cities of Greensboro and High Point. DAQ currently operates two monitoring sites in the Greensboro-High Point MSA. These sites are located at Mendenhall in Guilford County and Bethany in Rockingham County. Figure B14 shows the locations of these monitors. DAQ shut down the Colfax, 37-081-0014, one-in-three-day fine particle monitoring site at the end of 2014 because 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D no longer required the division to operate it. Figure B14. Location of monitors in the Greensboro-High Point MSA 13 Revision to the Near-road NO2 Minimum Monitoring Requirements, Federal Register, Vol. 81, No. 251, Dec. 30, 2016, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2016-12-30/pdf/2016-31645.pdf. 14 “Appendix D to Part 58—Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring,” 4.2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Design Criteria, 4.2.1 General Requirements, available at https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi- bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&r=PART&n=40y6.0.1.1.6#ap40.6.58_161.d, accessed on April 22, 2017. The Mendenhall ozone and particle-monitoring site is in the center; the Bethany ozone monitoring site is to the north. B12 At the Mendenhall site, 37-081-0013, DAQ operates seasonal ozone, continuous fine particle and continuous PM10 monitors. On March 26, 2019, the division added a rainwater collection sampler to the site. Figure B15 through Figure B23 show the site and views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest. The Mendenhall site is the design value ozone-monitoring site for the MSA. At the end of 2017, DAQ shut down the fine particle federal reference one-in-six-day monitor. Site information is in Table B2. Figure B15. Mendenhall ozone, particle and rainwater monitoring site, 37-081-0013 B13 Figure B16. Looking north from the Mendenhall site Figure B17. Looking northwest from the Mendenhall site Figure B18. The Mendenhall site looking northeast Figure B19. Looking east from the Mendenhall site B14 Figure B20. Looking west from the Mendenhall site Figure B21. Looking southwest from the Mendenhall site Figure B22. Looking southeast from the Mendenhall site Figure B23. Looking south from the Mendenhall site B15 Table B2. Site Table for Mendenhall Site Name: Mendenhall School AQS Site Identification Number 37-081-0013 Location: 205 Willoughby Blvd., Greensboro, North Carolina CBSA: Greensboro-High Point, NC CBSA #: 24660 Latitude 36.109167 Longitude -79.801111 Datum: NAD83 Elevation 247 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule Ozone Instrumental with ultraviolet photometry, 047 EQOA-0880-047 1-Hour March 1 to Oct. 31 PM 2.5 local conditions, BAM Met One BAM-1022 Mass Monitor w/ VSCC EQPM-1013-209 1-Hour Year-round PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP Met One Beta Attenuation BAM-1020 EQPM-0798-122 1-Hour Year-round Date Monitor Established: Ozone April 15, 2005 Date Monitor Established: PM 2.5 local conditions, continuous Dec. 14, 2001 Date Monitor Established: PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP Dec. 14, 2001 Nearest Road: Saint Regis Road Traffic Count: <1,000 Year of Count: 2021 Estimate Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose Ozone 185 meters North northwest SLAMS Compliance w/ NAAQS; real-time reporting; air quality forecasting. PM 2.5 local conditions, BAM 185 meters North northwest SPM; non- regulatory Real-time reporting; air quality forecasting. PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP 185 meters North northwest SLAMS Compliance w/NAAQS Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable to Compare to NAAQS Proposal to Move or Change Ozone General background Population exposure Urban Yes None PM 2.5 local conditions, BAM Population exposure General background Neighborhood Yes None PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP Population exposure General background Urban Yes None Parameter Name Meets Part 58 Appendix A Requirements Meets Part 58 Appendix C Requirements Meets Part 58 Appendix D Requirements Meets Part 58 Appendix E Requirements Ozone Yes Yes Yes Yes PM 2.5 local conditions, BAM Yes Yes Yes Yes PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP Yes Yes Yes Yes Parameter Name Probe Height in meters Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles Ozone 3.0 1.1 meters >20 meters None PM 2.5 local conditions, BAM 2.5 2.2 meters >20 meters None PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP 2.5 2.2 meters >20 meters None DAQ operated a BAM 1022 monitor at the site from November 2015 to Dec. 31, 2017, to evaluate how well the BAM and the FRM compare at this location. Figure B24 presents a comparison of the two monitors. Based on the results, through the end of 2017, the two monitors compared well. Thus, DAQ made the BAM the primary monitor at the site on Jan. 1, 2018, and shut down the FRM at the end of 2017. B16 Figure B24. Comparison of the beta attenuation monitor with the federal reference monitor at Mendenhall B17 At the Bethany site, 37-157-0099, DAQ operates a seasonal ozone monitor, the second required ozone-monitoring site for the MSA. The division added a background sulfur dioxide monitor for background PSD modeling to this site Jan. 1, 2011. The monitor operates for 12 months every three years. It operated from March 26, 2020 until April 1, 2021. Figure B25 through Figure B29 present a picture of the site as well as views looking north, east, south and west. Site information is in Table B3. Figure B25. Bethany ozone and sulfur dioxide monitoring site, 37-157-0099 Figure B26. Looking north from the Bethany site Figure B27. Looking west from the Bethany site Figure B28. Looking east from the Bethany site Figure B29. Looking south from the Bethany site B18 Table B3. Site Table for Bethany Site Name: Bethany AQS Site Identification Number 37-157-0099 Location: 6371 NC 65 @ Bethany School, Reidsville, NC 27320 CBSA: Greensboro-High Point, NC CBSA #: 24660 Latitude 36.308608 Longitude -79.859315 Datum: WGS84 Elevation 277 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule Ozone Instrumental with ultra violet photometry, 047 EQOA-0880-047 1-Hour March 1 to Oct. 31 Sulfur dioxide Instrumental with pulsed fluorescence, 060 EQSA-0486-060 1-Hour 12 months Every third year Date Monitor Established: Ozone July 7, 1993 Date Monitor Established: Sulfur dioxide Jan. 1, 2011 Nearest Road: Bethany Road Traffic Count: 1100 Year of Count: 2021 Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose Ozone 15 meters West southwest SLAMS Compliance w/ NAAQS; real-time reporting; air quality forecasting. Sulfur dioxide 15 meters West southwest Special purpose PSD modeling. Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable to Compare to NAAQS Proposal to Move or Change Ozone Population exposure, transport, welfare related impacts Urba n Yes None Sulfur dioxide General background Urba n Yes Started 01/01/2023 and operating through 12/31/2023 Parameter Name Meets Part 58, Appendix A Requirements Meets Part 58, Appendix C Requirements Meets Part 58, Appendix D Requirements Meets Part 58, Appendix E Requirements Ozone Yes Yes Yes Yes Sulfur dioxide Yes Yes Yes - Not required Yes Parameter Name Probe Height in meters Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles Ozone 3 1.0 meter >20 meters None Sulfur dioxide 3 1.0 meter >20 meters None As shown in Figure B30, the site is located near two emission sources: Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC - Rockingham County Combustion Turbine, air permit number 08731T16, is located about 3 kilometers to the northeast and Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Corporation - Compressor Station 160, permit 09113T13, is located about 5 kilometers to the north northeast. In 2020, the Duke Energy Carolinas facility emitted 166.6 tons of nitrogen oxides, 7.6 tons of volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, and 2.1 B19 tons of sulfur dioxide.15 Transcontinental Gas Pipeline emitted 1,396.8 tons of nitrogen oxides, 98.2 tons of VOCs and 0.3 tons of sulfur dioxide.16 Figure B30. Location of the Bethany ozone site in relation to nearby emission sources DAQ issued a new permit, 10494R00, for a power green-field plant on July 14, 2017.17 Figure B31 presents the latitude and longitude coordinates for the facility, NTE Carolinas Reidsville Energy Center (Facility ID:7900182), relative to the Bethany monitoring site. The Bethany monitoring site is approximately 3.2 km southwest from where the new plant will be constructed. The facility submitted a letter to DAQ on Nov. 30, 2018, requesting an extension of the 18-month period to commence construction of the facility. DAQ received the letter on Dec. 3, 2018. DAQ sent a letter to the facility on Dec. 18, 2018, stating that their letter included adequate justification and as such, the division was granting an additional 18 months to commence construction. The revised date by which the facility shall commence construction was July 14, 2020; however due to COVID-19, the facility was not able to meet this date. As a result, DAQ received another request from the facility on April 9, 2020, to extend the date by which the facility shall commence construction. DAQ sent a letter to the facility on June 8, 2020, stating that their letter included adequate justification and as such the DAQ was granting an additional 18 months to commence construction. The revised date by which the facility shall commence construction was Jan. 14, 2022; however due to challenges including the delay in receiving renewal of the plant’s Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity (CPCN) from the North Carolina Utilities Commission (NCUC) and the impacts of COVID-19 (disruption of supply chains, uncertainty of 15 North Carolina Point Source Emissions Report. Available online at https://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/ToxicsReport/ToxicsReportFacility.jsp?ibeam=true&year=2020&county_code=157&fi ndfacility=4734. Accessed May 15, 2022. 16 North Carolina Point Source Emissions Report. Available online at https://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/ToxicsReport/ToxicsReportFacility.jsp?ibeam=true&year=2020&county_code=157&fi ndfacility=4445. Accessed May 15, 2022. 17 North Carolina Division of Air Quality Permitted Facilities. Available online at https://www.deq.nc.gov/air- quality/ambient/misc/north-carolina-division-air-quality-permitted-facilities/open. Accessed May 22, 2023. A is the Bethany ozone monitoring Site; B is Transcontinental Gas Pipeline Corp. - Compressor Station 160; C is Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC - Rockingham Co. Comb. Turbine B20 equipment, and restricted activities associated between NTE and prospective customers), the facility was not able to meet this date. As a result, DAQ received another request from the facility on Jan. 5, 2022, to extend the date by which the facility shall commence construction. DAQ sent a letter to the facility on Jan. 14, 2022, stating that their letter included adequate justification and as such the DAQ was granting an additional 18 months to commence construction. The most recently revised date by which construction shall be commenced is July 14, 2023. The DAQ plans to rescind the permit later this year after completing an inspection of the property. Figure B31. Location of new facility relative to the existing Bethany ozone and sulfur dioxide monitoring station In 2008 the EPA expanded the lead monitoring network to support the lower lead NAAQS of 0.15 micrograms per cubic meter. 18 In 2010, the EPA focused monitoring efforts on fence-line monitoring located at facilities that emit 0.5 or more tons of lead per year and at NCore monitoring sites in urban 18 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead, Federal Register, Vol. 73, No. 219, \ Wednesday, Nov. 12, 2008, p. 66964, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2008-11-12/pdf/E8-25654.pdf. B21 areas. 19 In 2016, the EPA removed the requirement for monitoring at NCore sites.20 The revised lead monitoring requirements did not require DAQ to do lead monitoring in the Greensboro-High Point MSA because, as shown in Figure B32, the area does not have any permitted facilities emitting 0.5 or more tons per year of lead.21 Figure B32. Lead and lead compounds emitted in the Greensboro-High Point MSA from 2009 to 2020 The 2015 ozone monitoring requirements did not result in additional monitors in the Greensboro-High Point MSA.22 This MSA meets the minimum monitoring requirements in 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D for population exposure monitoring in urban areas. However, starting in 2017, the monitoring season began one month earlier on March 1 instead of April 1. To comply with 2010 nitrogen dioxide monitoring requirements,23 the March 7, 2013, monitoring rules required the Greensboro-High Point MSA to add a monitor by Jan. 1, 2017, because the MSA population exceeds the 500,000-threshold. However, on Dec. 30, 2016, the EPA removed the requirement to 19 Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements, Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 247, Monday, Dec. 27, 2010, p. 81126, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-27/pdf/2010- 32153.pdf#page=1. 20 Revisions to Ambient Monitoring Quality Assurance and Other Requirements, Federal Register, Vol. 81, No. 59, Monday, March 28, 2016, p. 17248, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2016- 03-28/pdf/2016-06226.pdf. 21 United States Environmental Protection Agency. The 2020 EPA Toxics Release Inventory Tracker available at https://edap.epa.gov/public/extensions/TRIToxicsTracker/TRIToxicsTracker.html#. 22 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone, Final Rule, Federal Register, Vol. 80, No. 206, Oct. 26, 2015, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-10-26/pdf/2015-26594.pdf, accessed on May 7, 2017. 23 Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide, Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 26, Feb. 9, 2010, available on the worldwide web at https://www3.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/nox/fr/20100209.pdf. B22 establish near-road NO2 monitoring stations in CBSAs having populations between 500,000 and 1,000,000 persons.24 The 2010 sulfur dioxide monitoring requirements resulted in not requiring additional monitoring in this area because the OAQPS released revised PWEI calculations in August 2012. The August 2012 calculations resulted in the Greensboro MSA not needing a PWEI monitor. The regulations also do not require this MSA to operate near-road carbon monoxide and fine particle monitors because the population is less than 1,000,000. 25 (4) The Burlington MSA The Burlington MSA consists of the county of Alamance. The major metropolitan area is the city of Burlington. DAQ currently does not operate any monitoring sites in the Burlington MSA. The division shut down the Hopedale fine particle-monitoring site in 2015. Title 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D did not require DAQ to continue operating this fine-particle monitoring site. The changes made to the lead monitoring requirements in December 2010 did not require additional monitoring in the Burlington MSA because, as shown in Figure B33, the MSA does not have any permitted facilities emitting 0.5 tons or more of lead per year.26 The 2010 nitrogen dioxide monitoring requirements did not require the Burlington MSA to monitor for nitrogen dioxide. 27 The MSA is too small to require area-wide monitors and does not have any roadways with average annual daily traffic above the threshold for near roadway monitoring. The 2010 sulfur dioxide monitoring requirements also did not result in additional monitoring in the MSA because there are no large sources emitting sulfur dioxide within its bounds. The regulations also do not require this area to operate near-road carbon monoxide and fine particle monitors because the population is under 1,000,000. 28 24 Revision to the Near-road NO2 Minimum Monitoring Requirements, Federal Register, Vol. 81, No. 251, Dec. 30, 2016, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2016-12-30/pdf/2016-31645.pdf. 25 “Appendix D to Part 58—Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring,” 4.2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Design Criteria, 4.2.1 General Requirements, available at https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi- bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&r=PART&n=40y6.0.1.1.6#ap40.6.58_161.d, accessed on April 22, 2017. 26 United States Environmental Protection Agency. The 2020 EPA Toxics Release Inventory Tracker available at https://edap.epa.gov/public/extensions/TRIToxicsTracker/TRIToxicsTracker.html#. 27 Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide, Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 26, Feb. 9, 2010, available on the worldwide web at https://www3.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/nox/fr/20100209.pdf. 28 “Appendix D to Part 58—Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring,” 4.2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Design Criteria, 4.2.1 General Requirements, available at https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi- bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&r=PART&n=40y6.0.1.1.6#ap40.6.58_161.d, accessed on April 22, 2017. B23 Figure B33. Lead air emissions in Alamance County from 2009 to 2020 DAQ plans to make no changes to the Burlington MSA ozone-monitoring network. Currently, the division does not monitor for ozone in Burlington because there are ozone monitors in the neighboring counties of Caswell, Guilford and Rockingham. Figure B34 shows the locations of these monitors in relation to the Burlington MSA. DAQ established the monitor at Bushy Fork in Person County, also shown in Figure B34, as a downwind monitor for the Burlington MSA. Figure B34. Locations of ozone monitors near the Burlington MSA. (5) Caswell County The heavy blue line outlines the Burlington MSA. A, to the north, is the Cherry Grove monitor; B to the northwest, is the Bethany monitor; C, to the west, is the Mendenhall monitor; E, to the east, is the Durham monitor; F, to the northeast, is the Bushy Fork monitor. The scale of representation for these monitors is urban, 4 to 50 km, for all but the Durham monitor, which is neighborhood scale – 0.5 to 4 km. B24 Caswell County has no metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas. DAQ currently operates one monitoring site in this county, located on Cherry Grove Road. Figure B35 shows the location of this ozone and rotating particle-monitoring site. At the Cherry Grove site, 37-033-0001, the division operates a seasonal ozone monitor and a continuous every-third-year PM10 monitor. Fine particle monitoring at the site ended on Jan. 5, 2016. Figure B35. Location of the Cherry Grove monitoring site A is the Cherry Grove ozone and fine particle site. The circle approximates the urban scale of representation, 4 to 50 km, for ozone and particles. Figure B36 shows the site. Table B4 summarizes information for the site. Figure B37 through Figure B42 present views looking north, northeast, east, south, southwest and west. DAQ operates a background PM10 monitor at this site. The monitor operates on a one-in-three-year schedule to provide data for prevention of significant deterioration modeling for industrial expansion. The PM10 monitor began operation Dec. 12, 2022 and will run through the end of 2023. Figure B36. Cherry Grove ozone and particle monitoring Site, 37-033-0001 B25 Table B4. Site Table for Cherry Grove Site Name: Cherry Grove AQS Site Identification Number 37-033-0001 Location: 7074 Cherry Grove Road, Reidsville, North Carolina MSA: Not in an MSA MSA #: 00000 Latitude 36.307033 Longitude -79.467417 Datum: WGS84 Elevation 241 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule Ozone Instrumental with ultraviolet photometry, 047 EQOA-0880-047 1-Hour March 1 to Oct. 31 PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP Met One Beta Attenuation BAM-1020 EQPM-0798-122 1-Hour For 12 months, Every third year Date Monitor Established: Ozone April 1, 1993 Date Monitor Established: PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP Jan. 1, 2013 Nearest Road: Cherry Grove Road Traffic Count: 1,200 Year of Count: 2021 Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose Ozone 49 meters Northeast SLAMS Compliance w/ NAAQS. Air quality forecasting. PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP 49 meters Northeast Special purpose Industrial expansion monitoring Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable to Compare to NAAQS Proposal to Move or Change Ozone Transport, welfare related impacts Urban Yes None PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP Population exposure, general background, transport Urban Yes Operating Dec. 12, 2022, to Dec. 31, 2023 Parameter Name Meets Part 58 Appendix A Requirements Meets Part 58 Appendix C Requirements Meets Part 58 Appendix D Requirements Meets Part 58 Appendix E Requirements Ozone Yes Yes Yes - Not required Yes PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP Yes Yes Yes - Not required Yes Parameter Name Probe Height in meters Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles Ozone 3 1.1 meters >20 meters None PM10 Total 0-10 µm STP 2.4 2.2 meters >20 meters None Figure B37. Looking north from Cherry Grove site Figure B38. Looking northeast from Cherry Grove site B26 Figure B39. Looking west from Cherry Grove site Figure B40. Looking southwest from Cherry Grove site Figure B41. Looking east from Cherry Grove site Figure B42. Looking south from Cherry Grove site The lead monitoring requirements did not add any lead monitoring in Caswell County because the county does not have any permitted facilities located within its bounds that emit 0.5 tons or more of lead per year.29 Caswell County also will not need additional ozone monitors to comply with the 2015 ozone monitoring requirements. 30 This county does not have a MSA that must meet the minimum monitoring requirements in 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D for population exposure monitoring in urban areas. Since 2017, ozone monitoring starts on March 1 instead of April 1. The 2010 nitrogen dioxide monitoring requirements did not result in additional monitoring in Caswell County.31 The county is too small to require area-wide monitors and does not have any roadways with average annual daily traffic above the threshold for near roadway monitoring. This area will not need additional sulfur dioxide monitors to comply with the 2010 sulfur dioxide monitoring requirements because it does not have any large sulfur dioxide sources within its bounds. This area also does not need 29 United States Environmental Protection Agency. The 2020 EPA Toxics Release Inventory Tracker available at https://edap.epa.gov/public/extensions/TRIToxicsTracker/TRIToxicsTracker.html#. 30 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone, Final Rule, Federal Register, Vol. 80, No. 206, Oct. 26, 2015, available on the worldwide web at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-10-26/pdf/2015-26594.pdf, accessed on May 7, 2017. 31 Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nitrogen Dioxide, Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 26, Feb. 9, 2010, available on the worldwide web at https://www3.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/nox/fr/20100209.pdf. B27 to operate near-road carbon monoxide and fine particle monitors because the population is under 1,000,000. 32 32 “Appendix D to Part 58—Network Design Criteria for Ambient Air Quality Monitoring,” 4.2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Design Criteria, 4.2.1 General Requirements, available at https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi- bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&r=PART&n=40y6.0.1.1.6#ap40.6.58_161.d, accessed on April 22, 2017. B28 Appendix B.1 Annual Network Site Review Forms for 2022 Lexington Mendenhall in Greensboro Bethany Cherry Grove B29 B30 B31 B32 B33 B34 B35 B36