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AQ_AM_20230628_BP_AnnPln_Final 2023-2024 Volume 2-A Asheville Region_Final 2023-2024 Annual Monitoring Network Plan for the North Carolina Division of Air Quality Volume 2 Site Descriptions by Division of Air Quality Regional Office and Metropolitan Statistical Area A. The Asheville Monitoring Region June 28, 2023 A2 Table of Contents List of Figures ................................................................................................................................................ 2 List of Tables .................................................................................................................................................. 5 A. The Asheville Monitoring Region ........................................................................................................... 6 (1) The Mountaintop Areas ....................................................................................................................... 6 (2) The Asheville MSA .............................................................................................................................. 16 (3) The Non-MSA Valley Areas................................................................................................................. 29 Appendix A.1 Annual Network Site Review Forms for 2022 .................................................................... 41 List of Figures Figure A-1. The Asheville monitoring region ................................................................................................ 6 Figure A-2. Location of mountaintop monitoring sites ................................................................................. 7 Figure A-3. Joanna Bald ozone-monitoring site ............................................................................................ 7 Figure A-4. The Joanna Bald site looking north ............................................................................................ 8 Figure A-5. Looking northwest from the Joanna Bald site ............................................................................ 8 Figure A-6. The Joanna Bald site looking west .............................................................................................. 8 Figure A-7. Looking southwest from the Joanna Bald site ............................................................................ 8 Figure A-8. Looking northeast from the Joanna Bald site ............................................................................. 8 Figure A-9. The Joanna Bald site looking east ............................................................................................... 8 Figure A-10. Looking southeast from the Joanna Bald site .......................................................................... 8 Figure A-11. The Joanna Bald site looking south .......................................................................................... 8 Figure A-12. Location of Joanna Bald relative to the floodplain ................................................................... 9 Figure A-13. Frying Pan Mountain ozone and IMPROVE monitoring site, 37-087-0035 ............................ 10 Figure A-14. Looking north from the Frying Pan site .................................................................................. 10 Figure A-15. Looking northwest from the Frying Pan site .......................................................................... 10 Figure A-16. Looking northeast from the Frying Pan site ........................................................................... 10 Figure A-17. Looking east from the Frying Pan site .................................................................................... 10 Figure A-18. Looking west from the Frying Pan site ................................................................................... 11 Figure A-19. Looking southwest from the Frying Pan site .......................................................................... 11 Figure A-20. Looking southeast from the Frying Pan site ........................................................................... 11 Figure A-21. Looking south from the Frying Pan site .................................................................................. 11 Figure A-22 Asheville area monitors in relation to the floodplain ............................................................. 11 Figure A-23. The Purchase Knob seasonal ozone monitoring site .............................................................. 12 Figure A-24. Location of Purchase Knob relative to the floodplain ............................................................ 12 Figure A-25. Looking north from the Purchase Knob site ........................................................................... 13 Figure A-26. Purchase Knob site looking northwest ................................................................................... 13 Figure A-27. Looking west from the Purchase Knob site ............................................................................ 13 A3 Figure A-28. Purchase Knob site looking northeast .................................................................................... 13 Figure A-29. Looking east from the Purchase Knob site ............................................................................. 13 Figure A-30. Looking southeast from the Purchase Knob site .................................................................... 13 Figure A-31. Purchase Knob site looking southwest ................................................................................... 14 Figure A-32. Looking south from the Purchase Knob site........................................................................... 14 Figure A-33. The Mount Mitchell ozone monitoring site ........................................................................... 14 Figure A-34. Looking north from the Mount Mitchell site .......................................................................... 14 Figure A-35. Looking northeast at the Mount Mitchell shelter .................................................................. 14 Figure A-36. Mount Mitchell site looking northwest .................................................................................. 15 Figure A-37. Looking west from the Mount Mitchell site ........................................................................... 15 Figure A-38. Mount Mitchell looking southwest ........................................................................................ 15 Figure A-39. Mount Mitchell site looking east ............................................................................................ 15 Figure A-40. Looking southeast at the Mount Mitchell shelter ................................................................. 15 Figure A-41. Looking south from the Mount Mitchell site ......................................................................... 15 Figure A-42. Location of the Mount Mitchell site relative to the floodplain .............................................. 15 Figure A-43. Locations of Monitoring Sites in the Asheville MSA ............................................................... 16 Figure A-44. ABAQA Board of Education fine particle monitoring site, 37-021-0024 ................................ 17 Figure A-45. Board of Education site looking north .................................................................................... 17 Figure A-46. Board of Education site looking northwest ............................................................................ 17 Figure A-47. Board of Education site looking west ..................................................................................... 17 Figure A-48. Board of Education site looking northeast ............................................................................. 17 Figure A-49. Board of Education site looking east ...................................................................................... 18 Figure A-50. Board of Education site looking southeast ............................................................................. 18 Figure A-51. Board of Education site looking southwest ............................................................................ 18 Figure A-52. Board of Education site looking south ................................................................................... 18 Figure A-53. Locations of current and proposed monitoring stations at the Board of Education site ....... 19 Figure A-54. The Bent Creek ozone monitoring site, 37-021-0030 ............................................................ 19 Figure A-55. Looking north from the Bent Creek site ................................................................................. 20 Figure A-56. Looking northwest from the Bent Creek site ......................................................................... 20 Figure A-57. Looking west from the Bent Creek site .................................................................................. 20 Figure A-58. Looking southwest from the Bent Creek site ......................................................................... 20 Figure A-59. Looking northeast from the Bent Creek site .......................................................................... 20 Figure A-60. Looking east from the Bent Creek site ................................................................................... 20 Figure A-61. Looking southeast from the Bent Creek site .......................................................................... 20 Figure A-62. Looking south from the Bent Creek site ................................................................................. 20 Figure A-63. AB Tech urban air toxics monitoring site ............................................................................... 21 Figure A-64. Looking north from the AB Tech site ...................................................................................... 21 Figure A-65. Looking northwest from the AB Tech site .............................................................................. 21 Figure A-66. Looking northeast from the AB Tech site ............................................................................... 22 Figure A-67. Looking east from the AB Tech site ........................................................................................ 22 Figure A-68. Looking west from the AB Tech site ....................................................................................... 22 Figure A-69. Looking southwest from the AB Tech site .............................................................................. 22 A4 Figure A-70. Looking southeast from the AB Tech site ............................................................................... 22 Figure A-71. Looking south from the AB Tech site...................................................................................... 22 Figure A-72. The Waynesville elementary school ozone monitoring site .................................................. 23 Figure A-73. Aerial view of the Waynesville ozone monitoring site (A is the old site location) ................. 24 Figure A-74. Looking north from Waynesville ozone site ........................................................................... 25 Figure A-75. Waynesville ozone site looking northeast .............................................................................. 25 Figure A-76. Waynesville ozone site looking northwest ............................................................................. 25 Figure A-77. Waynesville ozone site looking west ...................................................................................... 25 FigureA-78. Waynesville ozone site looking southwest ............................................................................. 25 Figure A-79. Waynesville ozone site looking east ....................................................................................... 25 Figure A-80. Waynesville ozone site looking southeast ............................................................................. 26 Figure A-81. Waynesville ozone site looking south .................................................................................... 26 Figure A-82. Aerial view showing the location of the Canton DRR monitoring station .............................. 26 Figure A-83. Canton DRR sulfur dioxide monitoring site ............................................................................ 27 Figure A-84. The Canton DRR site looking north ........................................................................................ 27 Figure A-85. The Canton DRR site looking northwest ................................................................................. 27 Figure A-86. The Canton DRR site looking west .......................................................................................... 28 Figure A-87. Looking northeast from the Canton DRR site ......................................................................... 28 Figure A-88. Looking east from Canton DRR site ........................................................................................ 28 Figure A-89. Looking southeast from the Canton DRR site ........................................................................ 28 Figure A-90. Looking southwest from the Canton DRR site ........................................................................ 28 Figure A-91. Looking south from the Canton DRR site ............................................................................... 28 Figure A-92. Monitoring sites in the non-MSA valley areas of the Asheville monitoring region ............... 30 Figure A-93. The Bryson City ozone, particle and meteorological monitoring station, 37-173-0002 ........ 30 Figure A-94. Looking north from the Bryson site ........................................................................................ 31 Figure A-95. The Bryson site looking northwest ......................................................................................... 31 Figure A-96. The Bryson site looking northeast .......................................................................................... 31 Figure A-97. Looking east from the Bryson site .......................................................................................... 31 Figure A-98. Looking west from the Bryson site ......................................................................................... 31 Figure A-99. The Bryson site looking southwest ......................................................................................... 31 Figure A-100. The Bryson site looking southeast ........................................................................................ 32 Figure A-101. Looking south from the Bryson site ..................................................................................... 32 Figure A-102. Relocation of the continuous fine particle monitor at Bryson ............................................. 33 Figure A-103. Linville Falls ozone and IMPROVE monitoring site ............................................................... 35 Figure A-104. Looking north from the Linville site ...................................................................................... 35 Figure A-105. The Linville site looking northwest ....................................................................................... 35 Figure A-106. The Linville site looking northeast ........................................................................................ 35 Figure A-107. Looking east from the Linville site ........................................................................................ 35 Figure A-108. Looking west from the Linville site ....................................................................................... 36 Figure A-109. The Linville site looking southwest ....................................................................................... 36 Figure A-110. The Linville site looking southeast........................................................................................ 36 Figure A-111. Looking south from the Linville site ..................................................................................... 36 A5 Figure A-112. Eviction notice from the Town of Spruce Pine ..................................................................... 37 Figure A-113. Arial view of city hall and hospital monitoring sites............................................................. 38 Figure A-114. Spruce Pine hospital, 37-121-0004, fine particle monitoring site ........................................ 38 Figure A-115. Spruce Pine hospital site looking north ................................................................................ 39 Figure A-116. Spruce Pine hospital site looking northwest ........................................................................ 39 Figure A-117. Spruce Pine hospital site looking west ................................................................................. 39 Figure A-118. Spruce Pine hospital site looking northeast ......................................................................... 39 Figure A-119. Spruce Pine hospital site looking east .................................................................................. 39 Figure A-120. Spruce Pine hospital site looking southeast ......................................................................... 39 Figure A-121. Spruce Pine hospital site looking southwest ........................................................................ 40 Figure A-122. Spruce Pine hospital site looking south ................................................................................ 40 List of Tables Table A1. Site Information Table for Joanna Bald......................................................................................... 9 Table A2. Site Information Table for Frying Pan Mountain ........................................................................ 12 Table A3. Site Information Table for Waynesville Elementary School ....................................................... 23 Table A4. Site Information Table for Bryson City ........................................................................................ 33 Table A5. Site Information Table for Linville Falls ....................................................................................... 36 A6 A. The Asheville Monitoring Region The Asheville monitoring region, shown in Figure A-1, consists of four sections: (1) the mountaintop areas, those areas above 1.2 kilometers (km) or 4,000 feet in elevation in Avery, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Jackson, Madison, Macon, Mitchell, Swain, Transylvania and Yancey counties; (2) the Asheville metropolitan statistical area, or MSA, i.e., valley sites below 1.2 km in Buncombe, Haywood, Henderson and Madison counties; (3) the non- MSA valley areas, those areas below 1.2 km in elevation in Avery, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Jackson, Macon, McDowell, Mitchell, Polk, Rutherford, Swain, Transylvania and Yancey counties; and (4) the western portion of the Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton MSA, i.e., valley sites in Burke and Caldwell counties. This section of the monitoring plan focuses on the first three sections. Monitoring in Burke and Caldwell is covered in Section C, the Mooresville Monitoring Region. Figure A-1. The Asheville monitoring region The squares show the approximate locations of the monitoring sites in this region. (1) The Mountaintop Areas The mountaintop areas consist of elevations at or above 1.2 km or 4,000 feet in 12 counties in western North Carolina: Avery, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Haywood, Jackson, Madison, Macon, Mitchell, Swain, Transylvania and Yancey. No metropolitan or micropolitan statistical areas (MiSA) are located at these elevations. The North Carolina Division of Air Quality, or DAQ, currently operates four monitoring sites and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, or EBCI, operates one monitoring site on mountaintops at elevations greater than 1.2 km. The United States Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA, also operates a Clean Air Status and Trends Network, or CASTNET, site at an elevation of 1.2 km. The Barnett Knob tribal monitor is discussed further in the EBCI network plan. The Cranberry CASTNET site is discussed further in the CASTNET network plan.1 One DAQ site is an ozone-monitoring site located on Joanna Bald Mountain in the Joyce Kilmer National Wilderness Area. In addition to this site, the division operates two high-elevation sites in Haywood County located in or near Class 1 areas: Frying Pan in the Shining Rock Wilderness Area and Purchase Knob in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. A fourth DAQ site is in Mount Mitchell State Park. The locations of the DAQ and the tribal monitors are shown in Figure A-2. DAQ requested and received a waiver for the start of the monitoring season for the mountaintop sites because authorities often close the roads going to the sites during February. Thus, the mountaintop monitors will operate from March 1 or as soon after March 1 as the weather will allow through Oct. 31. Their official ozone season is listed by the EPA as April 1 through Oct. 31. 1 2022 CASTNET Annual Network Plan, June 15, 2021, available online at https://www.epa.gov/system/files/documents/2022-07/CASTNET_Annual_Network_Plan_2022_FINAL_post.pdf A7 Figure A-2. Location of mountaintop monitoring sites At the Joanna Bald site in Graham County, DAQ operates an ozone monitor that belongs to the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The relative humidity and air temperature sensors that were installed in 2005 were shut down on Oct. 8, 2014. A picture of the site as well as views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest are provided in Figure A-4 through Figure A-11. Table A1 summarizes monitoring information for the site. This monitoring site is in the Joyce Kilmer-Slickrock Wilderness Area, a Class I area. This monitor is a rural monitor. The location of the monitor with regards to the floodplain is shown in Figure A-12. Figure A-3. Joanna Bald ozone-monitoring site The Barnett Knob ozone-monitoring site is a tribal site. The circles around the monitoring sites show the scale of representation (regional scale of 50 km plus for all sites). A8 Figure A-4. The Joanna Bald site looking north Figure A-5. Looking northwest from the Joanna Bald site Figure A-6. The Joanna Bald site looking west Figure A-7. Looking southwest from the Joanna Bald site Figure A-8. Looking northeast from the Joanna Bald site Figure A-9. The Joanna Bald site looking east Figure A-10. Looking southeast from the Joanna Bald site Figure A-11. The Joanna Bald site looking south A9 Table A1. Site Information Table for Joanna Bald Site Name: Joanna Bald AQS Site Identification Number: 37-075-0001 Location: National Forest Road 423 Spur, Robbinsville, North Carolina CBSA: None CBSA #: 00000 Latitude 35.257930 Longitude -83.795620 Datum: WGS84 Elevation 1436 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule Ozone Instrumental with ultraviolet photometry (047) EQOA-0880-047 1-Hour April 1 to Oct. 31 Date Monitor Established: Ozone April 3, 2003 Nearest Road: National Forest Road Traffic Count: < 10 Year of Count: 2020 Estimate Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose Ozone 3 meters Southeast Special purpose Real-time AQI reporting and forecasting. Compliance w/NAAQS. Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable for Comparison to NAAQS Proposal to Move or Change Ozone General background Regional Yes None Parameter Name Meets Part 58 Requirements for: Appendix A Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Ozone Yes Yes Yes Yes Parameter Name Probe Height (m) Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles Ozone 4.4 meters 1.8 meters 10.97 meters to northwest None Figure A-12. Location of Joanna Bald relative to the floodplain A10 At the Frying Pan Mountain monitoring site, 37- 087-0035, DAQ operates a seasonal ozone monitor. At the end of the 2011 ozone season, a new monitoring shelter was constructed at the site. A picture of the site as well as views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest are provided in Figure A-13 through Figure A-21. Table A2 provides information on the site. This site is in a Class 1 area (the Shining Rock Wilderness Area) and is collocated with an Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) monitor. This monitor is a rural monitor. The location of the monitor with regards to the floodplain is shown in Figure A-22. Figure A-13. Frying Pan Mountain ozone and IMPROVE monitoring site, 37-087-0035 Figure A-14. Looking north from the Frying Pan site Figure A-15. Looking northwest from the Frying Pan site Figure A-16. Looking northeast from the Frying Pan site Figure A-17. Looking east from the Frying Pan site A11 Figure A-18. Looking west from the Frying Pan site Figure A-19. Looking southwest from the Frying Pan site Figure A-20. Looking southeast from the Frying Pan site Figure A-21. Looking south from the Frying Pan site Figure A-22 Asheville area monitors in relation to the floodplain A12 Table A2. Site Information Table for Frying Pan Mountain Frying Pan Mountain AQS Site Identification Number: 37-087-0035 Tower Blue Ridge Pkwy Mile Marker 410, Canton, North Carolina CBSA: None CBSA #: 00000 Latitude 35.393719 Longitude -82.774386 Datum: WGS84 Elevation 1617.88 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule Ozone Instrumental with ultraviolet photometry, 047 EQOA-0880-047 1-Hour April 1 to Oct. 31 Date Monitor Established: Ozone May 8, 1990 Nearest Road: Blue Ridge Parkway Traffic Count: 800 Year of Count: 2021 Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose Ozone 315 meters Southeast Special purpose Compliance w/NAAQS. Real-time AQI reporting & forecasting. Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable for Comparison to NAAQS Proposal to Move or Change Ozone General background Regional Yes None Meets 40 CFR Part 58 Requirements for: Appendix A Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Yes Yes Yes Yes Parameter Name Probe Height (m) Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles Ozone 4.5 1.3 meter > 20 meters None At the Purchase Knob monitoring site, 37-087- 0036, DAQ operates a seasonal ozone monitor. Figure A-23 shows the site. The location of the monitor with regards to the floodplain is shown in Figure A-24. Views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest are provided in Figure A-25 through Figure A-32. This site is in a Class 1 area (Great Smokey Mountains National Park). This monitor is a rural monitor. Figure A-23. The Purchase Knob seasonal ozone monitoring site Figure A-24. Location of Purchase Knob relative to the floodplain A13 Figure A-25. Looking north from the Purchase Knob site Figure A-26. Purchase Knob site looking northwest Figure A-27. Looking west from the Purchase Knob site Figure A-28. Purchase Knob site looking northeast Figure A-29. Looking east from the Purchase Knob site Figure A-30. Looking southeast from the Purchase Knob site A14 Figure A-31. Purchase Knob site looking southwest Figure A-32. Looking south from the Purchase Knob site At Mount Mitchell, DAQ operates a seasonal ozone monitor. A picture of the site as well as views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest are provided in Figure A-33 through Figure A-41. This site is located at the Mount Mitchell State Park visitor center. The location of the monitor with regards to the floodplain is shown in Figure A-42. Figure A-33. The Mount Mitchell ozone monitoring site Figure A-34. Looking north from the Mount Mitchell site Figure A-35. Looking northeast at the Mount Mitchell shelter A15 Figure A-36. Mount Mitchell site looking northwest Figure A-37. Looking west from the Mount Mitchell site Figure A-38. Mount Mitchell looking southwest Figure A-39. Mount Mitchell site looking east Figure A-40. Looking southeast at the Mount Mitchell shelter Figure A-41. Looking south from the Mount Mitchell site Figure A-42. Location of the Mount Mitchell site relative to the floodplain A16 There are no new monitoring rules that require additional monitoring in these high-elevation areas. The mountaintop seasonal ozone monitors started on March 1, 2017, because the ozone-monitoring season was extended to March in 2015. The division requested and received a waiver for March ozone monitoring for the Joanna Bald, Frying Pan, Purchase Knob and Mount Mitchell sites in years when the weather does not allow access to these sites. Access is often limited during the winter. Sometimes these sites remain inaccessible until early to mid-April. The waiver request approval was granted by the EPA in December 2016 and renewed in 2020. (2) The Asheville MSA The Asheville MSA consists of the valley portions (areas under the elevation of 1.2 km or 4,000 feet) of four counties: Buncombe, Haywood, Henderson and Madison. The major urban areas are Asheville, Waynesville and Hendersonville. The division currently operates two monitoring sites in the Asheville MSA, the Asheville Buncombe Air Quality Agency, ABAQA, operates two, and both agencies jointly operate an urban-air-toxics monitoring site. These sites are located at the Board of Education, Bent Creek and AB Tech in Buncombe County and the Waynesville Elementary School and Canton in Haywood County. The locations of these five monitoring sites are shown in Figure A-43. In 2013, ABAQA relocated its ozone monitor at Bent Creek to another location within the park. On Dec. 31, 2015, the division shut down the fine particle monitor at the Waynesville Recreation Center. On Jan. 1, 2017, two new source- oriented monitoring sites began operating in this MSA. One is operated by DAQ in Canton near the Evergreen facility. The other was jointly operated by ABAQA, DAQ and Duke Energy Progress in Skyland near the Asheville Steam Station. The Skyland sulfur dioxide data requirements rule, DRR, site shut down on July 1, 2020. Figure A-43. Locations of Monitoring Sites in the Asheville MSA A17 At the Board of Education site, ABAQA operates a one-in-six-day collocated precision fine particle FRM monitor and a continuous fine particle monitor. The one-in-six-day SASS and URG 3000 speciation fine particle monitors were shut down in January 2015 when the EPA stopped funding them. A picture of the site as well as views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest are provided in Figure A-44 through Figure A-52. On Jan. 1, 2016, ABAQA changed from using the well impactor ninety-six, or WINS, to very sharp cut cyclones, or VSCC, on the FRMs. In June 2017, ABAQA changed the method for continuously measuring fine particles. On Jan. 1, 2019, ABAQA changed the primary fine particle monitor at the site to the continuous fine particle monitor. Figure A-44. ABAQA Board of Education fine particle monitoring site, 37-021-0024 Figure A-45. Board of Education site looking north Figure A-46. Board of Education site looking northwest Figure A-47. Board of Education site looking west Figure A-48. Board of Education site looking northeast A18 Figure A-49. Board of Education site looking east Figure A-50. Board of Education site looking southeast Figure A-51. Board of Education site looking southwest Figure A-52. Board of Education site looking south In early 2022, Mr. Ryan Brown, with the Air and Radiation Division (ARD) of the EPA Region 4, called the Asheville-Buncombe Air Quality Agency (ABAQA) to inform them about the availability of a collocation shelter for sensor studies for installation at the Board of Education site (37-021-0034) located in Asheville, North Carolina. Further conversations with Mr. Brown and the property owners at the Board of Education site indicated that for the collocation shelter to be properly installed and accessible to the public, the current monitoring site would need to be relocated from the roof of the building to the ground. As a result, ABAQA contacted the maintenance staff at the Board of Education Building to see if the rooftop monitors could be relocated on the ground approximately 168 meters east of the current location as shown in Figure A-53. The Board of Education maintenance staff agreed to this location. As a result the DAQ with the assistance of ABAQA prepared a network plan addendum to the 2021-2022 network plan.2 This network plan addendum was made available on the Department of Environmental Quality DAQ website for public comment for 30 days from April 9 to May 10, 2022. In addition, notice of its availability was emailed to the DAQ Outside Involvement Committee and rulemaking stakeholders. No public comments were received. The move occurred April 2023 and the monitoring method should be changed to the T640X by the end of 2023. Pictures submitted were before the move and will be updated the next Annual Network Plan. 2 The NC DEQ 2021-2022 Network Monitoring Plan Volume 1 Addendum 1 Board of Education Information for Relocating the Fine Particle (PM2.5) Monitors, May 13, 2022, available on the worldwide web at https://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/documents/DocsSearch.do?dispatch=download&documentId=15698. A19 Figure A-53. Locations of current and proposed monitoring stations at the Board of Education site At the Bent Creek site, 37-021-0030, ABAQA operates a seasonal ozone monitor. A picture of the site as well as views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest are provided in Figure A-54 through Figure A-62. This site is one of two urban ozone-monitoring sites in the MSA. 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D requires the Asheville MSA to have two ozone monitoring sites. Because of the growth of the trees at the old Bent Creek location, ABAQA moved the site to a new Bent Creek location that is within a mile of the old Bent Creek location on June 6, 2013. Figure A-54. The Bent Creek ozone monitoring site, 37-021-0030 A20 Figure A-55. Looking north from the Bent Creek site Figure A-56. Looking northwest from the Bent Creek site Figure A-57. Looking west from the Bent Creek site Figure A-58. Looking southwest from the Bent Creek site Figure A-59. Looking northeast from the Bent Creek site Figure A-60. Looking east from the Bent Creek site Figure A-61. Looking southeast from the Bent Creek site Figure A-62. Looking south from the Bent Creek site A21 At the AB Tech site, 37-021-0035, ABAQA operates a year-round air toxics volatile organic compound sampler. Samples are collected in stainless steel canisters and sent to the Laboratory Analysis Branch, LAB, where they are analyzed for 66 compounds using the Compendium Method for Toxic Organics 15. Currently, DAQ has been forced to suspend the VOC portion of the UAT program due to staffing issues at the Reedy Creek Analysis Laboratory. This suspension of the VOC program began in February of 2023 and is expected to continue for the remainder of the year. DAQ hopes to reestablish the program in 2024 when staffing and training issues are resolved. DAQ continues to operate the UAT Aldehydes program in conjunction with the ABAQA. A picture of the site as well as views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest are provided in Figure A-63 through Figure A-71. 1- Bromopropane was added to the list of analytes starting on July 1, 2021. On May 4, 2022, the shelter at the site was replaced with a smaller, dog-house type shelter. Figure A-63. AB Tech urban air toxics monitoring site Figure A-64. Looking north from the AB Tech site Figure A-65. Looking northwest from the AB Tech site A22 Figure A-66. Looking northeast from the AB Tech site Figure A-67. Looking east from the AB Tech site Figure A-68. Looking west from the AB Tech site Figure A-69. Looking southwest from the AB Tech site Figure A-70. Looking southeast from the AB Tech site Figure A-71. Looking south from the AB Tech site In 2015, the division began working with Duke Energy Progress to establish a sulfur dioxide monitoring station in Skyland, North Carolina, to characterize the ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations near the A23 Asheville steam station as required by the DRR for sulfur dioxide.3 The area chosen for placement of the monitor was selected using the results of modeling done as described in the technical assistance document and was reported in the NC DEQ 2016-2017 Network Monitoring Plan Volume 1 Addendum 2 Duke Progress Energy Skyland Siting Analysis and Additional Site Information.4 The division operated this monitor in collaboration with Duke Energy Progress to ensure the air in the Asheville area complies with the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide. The NC DAQ submitted to the EPA an addendum to the 2019-2020 network plan on April 8, 2020, requesting permission to shut down the site.5 The EPA granted DAQ approval to shut down this monitor on July 1, 2020, and Duke shut down the monitor the same day. Figure A-72. The Waynesville elementary school ozone monitoring site At the Waynesville Elementary School site, 37-087-0008, DAQ operates a seasonal ozone monitor, one of two urban ozone monitoring sites in the MSA. 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix D requires the Asheville MSA to have two ozone monitoring sites. The site is shown in Figure A-72. Table A3 provides information on the site. This site started at the beginning of the 2011 ozone monitoring season and is across the street from the Haywood County Health Department where the previous site was located. Table A3. Site Information Table for Waynesville Elementary School Site Name: Waynesville Elementary School AQS Site Identification Number: 37-087-0008 Location: 2236 Asheville Road, Waynesville, North Carolina CBSA: Asheville, NC MSA #: 11700 Latitude 35.507224 Longitude -82.963625 Datum: WGS84 Elevation 793 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule Ozone Instrumental with ultraviolet photometry (047) EQOA-0880-047 1-Hour March 1 to Oct. 31 Date Monitor Established: Ozone April 1, 2011 Nearest Road: Asheville Road Traffic Count: 9,200 Year of Count: 2020 Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose Ozone 151 meters East northeast SLAMS Compliance w/NAAQS. Real-time AQI reporting & forecasting. 3 Data Requirements Rule for the 2010 1-Hour Sulfur Dioxide Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard, Federal Register of Aug. 21, 2015, (80 FR 51052)(FRL-9928-18-OAR), 2015-20367. 4 The NC DEQ 2016-2017 Network Monitoring Plan Volume 1 Addendum 2 Duke Progress Energy Skyland Siting Analysis and Additional Site Information, Dec. 28, 2016, available on the worldwide web at http://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/documents/DocsSearch.do?dispatch=download&documentId=13136. 5 2019-2020 Annual Monitoring Network Plan for the North Carolina Division of Air Quality, Volume 1, Addendum 2: Skyland Data Requirements Rule (DRR) and Semora DRR Data Analysis for Shutting Down the DRR Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Monitors, available on the worldwide web at http://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/documents/DocsSearch.do?dispatch=download&documentId=13023. A24 Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable for Comparison to NAAQS Proposal to Move or Change Ozone Population exposure Regional Yes None Parameter Name Meets Part 58 Requirements for: Appendix A Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Ozone Yes Yes Yes Yes Parameter Name Probe Height (m) Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles Ozone 3.7 1.02 meters >20 meters None The site was relocated on April 1, 2011, to Junaluska Elementary School at 2238 Asheville Road, Waynesville, NC 28786, approximately 200 meters east of the previous Waynesville health department site. An aerial view of the area is shown in Figure A-73. Figure A-74 through Figure A-81 provide views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest from the new site. Figure A-73. Aerial view of the Waynesville ozone monitoring site (A is the old site location) A25 Figure A-74. Looking north from Waynesville ozone site Figure A-75. Waynesville ozone site looking northeast Figure A-76. Waynesville ozone site looking northwest Figure A-77. Waynesville ozone site looking west FigureA-78. Waynesville ozone site looking southwest Figure A-79. Waynesville ozone site looking east A26 Figure A-80. Waynesville ozone site looking southeast Figure A-81. Waynesville ozone site looking south At the Canton DRR site, 37-087-0013, DAQ operates a source-oriented sulfur dioxide monitor to meet the requirements in the 2010 sulfur dioxide data requirements rule. The monitor started operating in late 2016 to ensure ambient air in the proximity of the Evergreen/Blue Ridge Paper facility meets the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide. Figure A-82 through Figure A-91 show an aerial view of the site in relationship to the Evergreen facility, the site and views from the site looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest. Figure A-82. Aerial view showing the location of the Canton DRR monitoring station A27 Figure A-83. Canton DRR sulfur dioxide monitoring site Figure A-84. The Canton DRR site looking north Figure A-85. The Canton DRR site looking northwest A28 Figure A-86. The Canton DRR site looking west Figure A-87. Looking northeast from the Canton DRR site Figure A-88. Looking east from Canton DRR site Figure A-89. Looking southeast from the Canton DRR site Figure A-90. Looking southwest from the Canton DRR site Figure A-91. Looking south from the Canton DRR site A29 The December 2010 changes to the lead monitoring regulations6 impacted the Asheville MSA because Evergreen/Blue Ridge Paper Products, located in Haywood County, emitted over 0.5 ton of lead to the air in 2009 and 2010.7 In 2011, the division requested and received a waiver for lead monitoring at Blue Ridge Paper based on results of modeling.8 Model results indicate the maximum ambient lead concentration in the ambient air at and beyond the fence line is 0.006 micrograms per cubic meter, well below the 0.075 micrograms per cubic meter (50 percent of the NAAQS) threshold for monitoring. The division did not renew the waiver in 2015 because the facility currently emits less than 0.5 ton of lead. 9 Early in 2023 the Evergreen Packaging Mill, the source of the SO2 emissions, announced plans to shut down in 2023. Once the shutdown occurs, the Canton SO2 monitor will no longer be needed. Should this happen the DAQ will determine the appropriate time to shut down the Canton SO2 monitoring site. The 2015 sulfur dioxide monitoring requirements required additional sulfur dioxide monitoring in this MSA.10 The sulfur dioxide monitors required by this rule are discussed in detail in the NC DEQ 2016-2017 Network Monitoring Plan Volume 1 Addendum 2 Duke Progress Energy Skyland Siting Analysis and Additional Site Information 11 and Appendix E. Evergreen Packaging Canton Siting Analysis and Additional Site Information.12 Both sites started in January 2017. Monitoring at the Skyland DRR site ended on July 1, 2020. (3) The Non-MSA Valley Areas The non-MSA valley areas consist of those areas below 1.2 km (4,000 feet) in 13 counties: Avery, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, Jackson, Macon, McDowell, Mitchell, Polk, Rutherford, Swain, Transylvania and Yancey. There are no major metropolitan areas. The Brevard MiSA is in Transylvania County and the Forest City MiSA is in Rutherford County. DAQ operates three monitoring sites, the EBCI operates two sites, and the EPA operates a CASTNET site. The Coweeta CASTNET site is discussed further in the CASTNET network plan.13 The EBCI operates a fine-particle monitoring site in Cherokee, North Carolina 6 Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements, Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 247, Monday, Dec. 27, 2010, p. 81126, available online at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-27/pdf/2010-32153.pdf#page=1. 7 North Carolina Criteria and Toxic Air Pollutant Point Source Emissions Report, available online at https://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/ToxicsReport/ToxicsReportFacility.jsp?ibeam=true&year=2009&pollutant=153&count y_code=087. 8 2011 State of North Carolina Ambient Air Monitoring Network Plan, The U. S. EPA Region 4 Comments and Recommendations, p3-4, available at http://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/documents/DocsSearch.do?dispatch=download&documentId=7843. 9 Data obtained from the DAQ emission inventory database available online at https://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/ToxicsReport/ToxicsReportFacility.jsp?ibeam=true&year=2020&county_code=087&fi ndfacility=4993, accessed on May 15, 2022 10 Data Requirements Rule for the 2010 1-Hour Sulfur Dioxide Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard, Federal Register of Aug. 21, 2015, (80 FR 51052) (FRL-9928-18-OAR), 2015-20367. 11 The NC DEQ 2016-2017 Network Monitoring Plan Volume 1 Addendum 2 Duke Progress Energy Skyland Siting Analysis and Additional Site Information, Dec. 28, 2016, available on the worldwide web at http://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/documents/DocsSearch.do?dispatch=download&documentId=13136. 12 The NC DEQ 2016-2017 Network Monitoring Plan Volume 1 Appendix E. Evergreen Packaging Canton Siting Analysis and Additional Site Information, July 1, 2016, available on the worldwide web at http://xapps.ncdenr.org/aq/documents/DocsSearch.do?dispatch=download&documentId=13137. 13 2021 CASTNET Annual Network Plan, June 15, 2021, available online at https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2021-06/documents/castnet_plan_2021_final_publish.pdf. A30 and an ozone-monitoring site in Swain County at the old high school. Both sites are tribal monitors and not part of the DAQ monitoring network. This section focuses on the three monitoring sites operated by DAQ. These sites are located at Bryson City in Swain County, Linville Falls in Avery County and Spruce Pine in Mitchell County. Figure A-92 shows the locations of these monitoring sites. The Marion particle monitoring station in McDowell County was shut down on Dec. 31, 2015. Figure A-92. Monitoring sites in the non-MSA valley areas of the Asheville monitoring region At Bryson City in Swain County, 37-173-0002, DAQ operates a seasonal ozone monitor and a federal equivalent method (FEM) beta attenuation (BAM) continuous fine particle monitor. In April 2014, the Tennessee Valley Authority added a hydrologic gauging station. A 12-month special purpose sulfur dioxide monitor collected background data for modeling attainment demonstrations for the Asheville power plant from August 2014 to August 2015. Figure A-93 through Figure A-101 show the site and views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest. The site is collocated with a meteorological tower measuring wind speed and wind direction, ambient temperature and relative humidity. Barometric pressure was added to the site on June 1, 2022. Figure A-93. The Bryson City ozone, particle and meteorological monitoring station, 37-173-0002 A31 Figure A-94. Looking north from the Bryson site Figure A-95. The Bryson site looking northwest Figure A-96. The Bryson site looking northeast Figure A-97. Looking east from the Bryson site Figure A-98. Looking west from the Bryson site Figure A-99. The Bryson site looking southwest A32 Figure A-100. The Bryson site looking southeast Figure A-101. Looking south from the Bryson site On May 31, 2022, DAQ stopped measuring the temperature differential between 10 meters and 2 meters and ended the temperature and relative humidity readings at 2 meters and moved the relative humidity sensor to 10 meters. During the summer of 2023, DAQ plans to relocate the continuous fine particle monitor from its current location to a new location placing it between the met tower and the rain gage to move the monitor further away from the dripline of a nearby tree as shown in Figure A-102. Sometime in 2023, DAQ also plans to change the continuous fine particle monitoring method from a BAM 1020 to a BAM 1022. Table A4 summarizes monitoring information for the Bryson City site. A33 Figure A-102. Relocation of the continuous fine particle monitor at Bryson Table A4. Site Information Table for Bryson City Site Name: Bryson City AQS Site Identification Number 37-173-0002 Location: 30 Recreation Park Drive, Bryson City, North Carolina CBSA: Not in a CBSA CBSA #: 00000 Latitude 35.434767 Longitude -83.442133 Datum: WGS84 Elevation 560 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule Ozone Instrumental with ultraviolet photometry (047) EQOA-0880-047 1-Hour March 1 to Oct. 31 PM 2.5 local conditions Met One BAM-1020 Mass Monitor w/VSCC - beta attenuation EQPM-0308-170 1-Hour Year round Outdoor temperature Met One AIO1 Sonic Weather Sensor (069) Not a reference method 1-Hour Year round Relative humidity Met One AIO1 Sonic Weather Sensor (069) Not a reference method 1-Hour Year round Barometric pressure Met One AIO1 Sonic Weather Sensor (069) Not a reference method 1-Hour Year round A34 Table A4. Site Information Table for Bryson City Wind direction/speed Instrumental - electronic or machine avg. (050) Not a reference method 1-Hour Year round Date Monitor Established: Ozone April 1, 1995 PM 2.5 local conditions June 17, 2009 Outdoor temperature April 25, 2001 Relative humidity April 25, 2001 Solar radiation April 25, 2001 Barometric pressure June 1, 2021 Wind direction/speed April 25, 2001 Nearest Road: Recreation Park Drive Traffic Count: 20 Year of Count: 2018 Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose Ozone 18 meters Northeast SLAMS Compliance w/NAAQS. Real-time AQI reporting & forecasting. PM 2.5 local conditions 25 meters Northeast SLAMS Compliance w/NAAQS. Real-time AQI reporting & forecasting. Outdoor temperature 25 meters Northeast Non-regulatory Real-time information & modeling Relative humidity 25 meters Northeast Non-regulatory Real-time information & modeling Barometric pressure 25 meters Northeast Non-regulatory Real-time information & modeling Wind direction/speed 25 meters Northeast Non-regulatory Real-time information & modeling Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable for NAAQS Comparison Proposal to Move or Change Ozone General background Neighborhood Yes None PM 2.5 local conditions Regional transport Regional Yes Platform will move in 2022 Outdoor temperature Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable 2 m sensor & delta temperature ended May 31, 2021 Relative humidity Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Method changed & sensor moved to 10 meters on June 1, 2021 Barometric pressure Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Started June 1, 2021 Wind direction/speed Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Method changed to AIO2 Parameter Name Meets Part 58 Requirements for: Appendix A Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Ozone Yes Yes Yes Yes PM 2.5 local conditions Yes Yes Yes Yes Outdoor temperature Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Relative humidity Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Barometric pressure Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Wind direction/speed Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Parameter Name Probe Height (m) Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles Ozone 4.57 1.82 meters 15.54 meters southwest None PM 2.5 local conditions 2.286 2.0574 meters 10.97 meters None Outdoor temperature 10 > 1 meters >20 meters None Relative humidity 10 > 1 meters >20 meters None Barometric pressure 10 > 1 meters >20 meters None Wind direction/speed 10 > 1 meters >20 meters None A35 At the Linville Falls site, DAQ operates a seasonal ozone monitor. A picture of the site as well as views looking north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west and northwest are provided in Figure A-103 through Figure A-111. This monitoring site is in the Linville Gorge Wilderness Area Class 1 area and is collocated with an IMPROVE monitor. This monitor is a rural monitor. The collocated relative humidity and ambient temperature sensor was shut down on Oct. 30, 2014. Figure A-103. Linville Falls ozone and IMPROVE monitoring site Figure A-104. Looking north from the Linville site Figure A-105. The Linville site looking northwest Figure A-106. The Linville site looking northeast Figure A-107. Looking east from the Linville site A36 Figure A-108. Looking west from the Linville site Figure A-109. The Linville site looking southwest Figure A-110. The Linville site looking southeast Figure A-111. Looking south from the Linville site Table A5. Site Information Table for Linville Falls Site Name: Linville Falls AQS Site Identification Number: 37-011-0002 Location: 100 Linville Falls Road, Linville Falls CBSA: None CBSA #: 00000 Latitude 35.972347 Longitude -81.933072 Datum: WGS84 Elevation 987 meters Parameter Name Method Method Reference ID Sample Duration Sampling Schedule Ozone Instrumental with ultraviolet photometry (047) EQOA-0880-047 1-Hour March 1 to Oct. 31 Date Monitor Established: Ozone Aug. 1, 1999 Nearest Road: Linville Falls Road Traffic Count: 500 Year of Count: 2018 Estimate Parameter Name Distance to Road Direction to Road Monitor Type Statement of Purpose Ozone 86 meters East SLAMS Compliance w/NAAQS. Real-time AQI reporting and forecasting. Parameter Name Monitoring Objective Scale Suitable for Comparison to NAAQS Proposal to Move or Change Ozone General background Urban Yes None Parameter Name Meets Part 58 Requirements for: Appendix A Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Ozone Yes Yes Yes Yes Parameter Name Probe Height (m) Distance to Support Distance to Trees Obstacles Ozone 3.80 meters 1.10 meters 16 meters east None In the fall of 2013, DAQ was evicted from the monitoring site located in Spruce Pine on the top of the town hall, 37-121-0001. Figure A-112 provides the eviction notice from the Town of Spruce Pine. The Town of Spruce Pine purchased a building and relocated their offices at the end of 2013. Thus, the division shut down the Spruce Pine site at the end of 2013 and established a new site at the Blue Ridge Regional Hospital, 37-121-0004. Because of the timing of the notice, DAQ was unable to include this network modification in the July 2013 network monitoring plan. Thus, the division requested emergency approval from the EPA Region 4 for shutting down the old site and establishing the new site. Details on the new site are provided below. Figure A-112. Eviction notice from the Town of Spruce Pine A38 Spruce Pine is in the mountains where there are very few flat open spaces to locate a monitor. The division prefers to keep the monitors on the ground for safety reasons and for ease of access. After searching around Spruce Pine within a mile of the city hall location, a new location at Blue Ridge Regional Hospital, 272 Hospital Dr., Spruce Pine, NC, was identified. As shown in Figure A-113, the hospital location is approximately 1 km east southeast of the city hall site. It is approximately 75 meters southeast of Highway U.S. 19 East, which had an average annual daily traffic count of 9,500 in 2012. Based on Figure E-1 in 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix E, the monitor is on the edge of the neighborhood- urban scale boundary. The site is located at latitude 35.912487 and longitude -82.062082. A picture of the site and pictures taken from the site looking in 8 compass directions are provided in Figure A-114 through Figure A-122. Figure A-113. Arial view of city hall and hospital monitoring sites Figure A-114. Spruce Pine hospital, 37-121-0004, fine particle monitoring site A39 Figure A-115. Spruce Pine hospital site looking north Figure A-116. Spruce Pine hospital site looking northwest Figure A-117. Spruce Pine hospital site looking west Figure A-118. Spruce Pine hospital site looking northeast Figure A-119. Spruce Pine hospital site looking east Figure A-120. Spruce Pine hospital site looking southeast A40 Figure A-121. Spruce Pine hospital site looking southwest Figure A-122. Spruce Pine hospital site looking south The hospital has a boiler house and emergency generators, but the monitor is at least 200 meters northeast from them. The trees to the northeast are about 32 meters high and 80 meters from the site. The trees to the east are about 33 meters high and 86 meters away. The trees to the southeast are 60 meters tall and 140 meters away. The building to the southwest is about 11 meters high and 130 meters from the site. The trees to the west are about 38 meters tall and 90 meters away. All the trees and buildings are far enough away as to not be obstacles to the flow of the air. In 2015 the hospital expanded the parking lot. The monitor was moved 9 meters to the north on March 31, 2015. There are no new monitoring rules that require additional monitoring in these non-MSA valley areas. A41 Appendix A.1 Annual Network Site Review Forms for 2022 Joanna Bald in Joyce Kilmer-Slickrock Wilderness Area Frying Pan in the Shining Rock Wilderness Area Purchase Knob in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Mount Mitchell in the Mount Mitchell State Park Bent Creek in Asheville, operated by the ABAQA Board of Education in Asheville, operated by the ABAQA AB Tech Air Toxics Site, operated by ABAQA & the Laboratory Analysis Branch Waynesville Elementary School in Waynesville Canton DRR in Canton Bryson City Linville Falls in the Linville Gorge Wilderness Area Spruce Pine A42 A43 A44 A45 A46 A47 A48 A49 A50 A51 A52 A53 A54 A55 A56 A57 A58 A59 A60 A61 A62 A63 A64 A65